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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define genetic engineering and describe how it is different than selective breeding:
Genetic engineering is: The deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material. Selective breeding: Selective breeding is the process of breeding plants and animals for particular genetic traits. Typically, strains which are selectively.
3 examples of Genetic Engineering:
Micro injection: injection DNA into a nucleus of a cell
Piggy back virus: inject viruses into the cell
Magic bullet: directed at certain cells like cancerous cells.
Describe and illustrate the structure of DNA
The structure of a DNA strand is a double-helix shape, containing two long polymers of nucleotides. The backbones of the nucleotides are sugar and phosphate groups. Each sugar is attached to one of four bases, which are cytosine, guanine, adenine, and thymine.
Describe and illustrate the relationship between DNA, Genes and Chromosomes
DNA is the heredity material of the cell. Each one of the strands of DNA is called a chromosome. a gene is a small segment of DNA, found in a small section of the chromosome.
Describe how traits are determined by alleles
set of alleles from each parent are inherited, the alleles combine to form offspring, the dominant alleles trait show up or if both recessive then recessive trait shows up. An allele is an alternate form of a gene. This is a basic answer, some traits are controlled by multiple alleles.
Discuss what homologous chromosomes are and how they relate to alleles and the determination of traits?
It is one of a pair of chromosomes. In a biological cell, a chromosome pairs with another chromosome during meiosis. This pairing (synapsis) happens between two chromosomes that are homologous, i.e. chromosomes having the same genes at the same loci but possibly different alleles. For example, two chromosomes may have genes encoding eye color, but one may code for brown eyes, the other for blue.
A human cell contains 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes: 22 of them are homologous non-sex chromosomes (or autosomes) and 1 homologous pair of sex chromosomes. In females, the homologous sex chromosomes are 2 X’s; in males the X and Y chromosomes.
Describe and illustrate Meiosis
one homologous from mom and one from dad so inherited 23 from each parent, Meiosis says that they need to reproduce: meiosis is cell division, only occurs in sex organs. It creates gametes sex cells (sperm and egg) that have one half the original genetic information. Send one homologous member to each daughter cell and so one cell goes to two cells
Describe why some diseases like colorblindness or hemophilia are more common in men:
The fact that color blindness is so much more prevalent among men implies that, like hemophilia, it is carried on the X chromosome, of which men have only one copy. (As in hemophilia, women are protected because they have two X chromosomes; a normal gene on one chromosome can often make up for a defective gene on the other.)
roles of proteins:
Antibodies defend the body from germs.
Contractile proteins are responsible for movement.
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions.
Storage proteins store amino acids.
Describe and illustrate the structure of a protein
Technically, there are 4.

The primary structure is the order of the amino acids in a chain.

The secondary structure is the formation of hydrogen bonds to form the amino acid chain into alpha helices or beta sheets.

The tertiary structure is bonding between R-groups of the amino acids to bend the helix or sheet into a 3-D shape. (Note - this may be as far as some proteins go, other go on to quaternary structure)

The quaternary structure is when more than one tertairy structue join - the hemoglobim molecule that carries oxygen in our blood is a quaternary structure that's made up of 4 tertiary structures
relationship between structure and function:
Structure refers to how the (body ) is put together-bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments - then onto organ structure, down to the cellular level-
Function refers to how doe (the body ) work,what does it do ?
example-structure of an organ- the largest in the human body - skin- epidermis
Describe and illustrate the process of protein synthesis
potential effects of mutation on an amino acid sequence:
if you mutate and the G in a DNA becomes a C, some mutations make a difference in the sense that they can mutate the codon structure within the person. It could possible have an impact on the overall structure.
Describe and illustrate how gene regulation occurs
Regulating a gene is impactful: how impactful it is happens at multiple levels. We can regulate the impact of a gene at four different places.
Transcription regulators: coils up on itself so that transcription cannot happen
Proteins: detoxify
Second way we can regulate genes: methylation: adding a molecule and that specific structure gets attatched to the seed and prevents RNA from doing transcription
Third way: transcription factors: promoter region right before the gene has transcription factors added to it than the genes attach and read
Discuss and illustrate the methods used to transfer genes from one organism to another
1st: locate the gene you’re interested in 2nd: make copies of the gene, thousands the process you use is PCR (look at how a cell copies DNA and copy that) 3rd: insert the genes through the many different ways know examples