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100 Cards in this Set

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Tropical rain forest
A biome characterized by heavy rainfall, constant warm temps. and dense growth of plant species
Tundra
a biome characterized by permafrost and low-growing vegetation
Deciduous Forest
a forest made of trees that annualy shed their leaves
Selection
choosing the individuals with a desired trait as the first step in controlled breeding
Starch
a carbohydrate made of hundreds to thousands of glucose molecules; use as a food storage molecule by plants
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
a nucleic acid composed of repeating units of deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen bases in a double strand formation: this substance contains the genetic information of a cell
Moneran
a porkaryotic organism; th group includes bacteria and cyanophytes
Binomial nomenclature
a two-name system of naming organisms by genus and species
Homeostasis
maintaininga constant internal environment despite changing external conditions
state of matter
one of four forms in which matter can exist, the three most common being solid, liquid, or gas
Grassland
a biome in which grasses are the dominant form of vegetation
Desert
a biome characterized by scant rainfall and widely spaced vegetation
Subspecies
a distinct population of a species, a race
Ultrasound
a technique using sound waves to locate the position of a fetus in the uterus
Experiment
a procedure carried out under controlled conditions to test a hypothesis
Biology
the study of living things
Autosome
any chromosome other than the sex chromosomes
Taiga
a biome characterized by coniferous forests
Cell wall
a semi-rigid structure lying outside of the plasma membrane in plant cells
Matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
Gene pool
all the genes present in a population
Chloroplast
a plastid containing chlorophyll
Variable
any factor that can be changed or varied in an experiment
Chlorophyll
one of several green pigments in plants required for photosynthesis
Mutation
a change in the genetic material that results from an errror in replication of DNA
Lipid
an organic molecule that will not dissolve in water but will dissolve in nonpolar substances: made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Homozygous
a term used to describe an individual having two alike alleles for a trait
Crossing over
exchange of parts between two homologous chromosomes
Element
a substance made of only one kind of atom
Secondary succession
ecological succession occurring in an area stripped of its previous community
Acquired characteristics
Traits that an organism develops during its lifetime
biogenesis
the idea that all living things arise from other similar living things of the same type
codon
a sequence of 3 nucleotide bases that codes for one amino acid in a protein
Endoplasmic recticulum
a network of channels in the cytoplasm of a cell that functions in protein synthesis
Equilibrium
a state where the rate of particles entering and leaving a system is equal
Inbreeding
crossing two closely related individuals
Eukaryote
any cell with a membrane bound nucleus
Herbivore
a consumer that eats only plants
Hybrid
an individual produce by crossing 2 pure lines
Hemophilia
a sex-linked condition in humans in which blood fails to clot
Taxonomy
the science of classifying organisms
Clone
a group of identical cells, or a complete individual produced from a single somatic cell
Messenger RNA
A type of RNA that carries the instructions for protein synthesis from the DNA th the ribosome where it acts as a template
Energy Pyramid
a relationship showing the flow of energey as it is transferred through members of a food chain
Carrier
an individual that is heterozygous for a recessive trait
Evolution
the theories concerning the processes of biological and organic change in organisms such that descendents differ from their ancestors
Diffusion
the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Molecule
2 or more atoms held together by a covalent bond
Heterotroph
an organism that cannot make its own food and must take in nourishment from its environment
Carnivore
an animal that consumes other animals for food.
Ecology
the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment
Consumer
an organism that gets its food from another organism or organic matter
trisomy
having an extra chromosome
Gene Frequency
the proportion of a particular allele in a population
Temperate forest
a biome characterized by plentiful rain and deciduous forests
Fat
a triglyceride that is solid at room temperature
Mitchondrion
an organelle in which energy production for the cell occurs
Fermentation
an anaerobic process whereby organic compounds such as carbohydrates are broken down to form products such as lactic acid or alcohol
hypothesis
a possible explanation for a set of observations
Dominant
a term used to describe a gene or trait that prevents the expression of a recessive trait
osmosis
the movement of water molecules across a membrane from an area of higer concentration to an area of lower concentration
Recombinant DNA
the new DNA that results from combining 2 or more types of DNA
Primary Succession
ecological succession occurring in an area not previously colonized
Oil
a triglyceride that remains in liquid at room temp.
Autotroph
an organism that can produce its own food from simple substances
Nucleus
a membrane-bound organelle containing the chromosomes/the central part of an atom containing the protons and neutrons
Heterozygous
a term used to describe an individual having unlike alleles for a trait
Pedigree
a diagram of family relationships
Aminocentesis
a procedure by which a small amount of amniotic fluid is withdrawn during pregnancy to detect genetic defects
Photosynthesis
a process by which plants, using chlorophyll and energy from sunlight, produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water
Fossil
an imprint or remains of an organism that lived long ago
abiogenesis
the obsolete idea that living things can arise from non-living material; spontaneous generation
Haploid
having half of the full complement of chromosomes
Omnivore
a consumer that eats both plants and animals
Anaerobic
not requiring oxygen
Prokaryote
any cell without an membrane-bound nucleus
Punnett square
a diagram used to visualise the possible results of a genetic cross
Carbohydrate
an organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that can be classified as sugar, starch, or cellulose
Aerobic
requiring oxygen
Permeable
allowing a substance to pass through
Phenotype
the observable appearance of an individual as a result of its genetic makeup
Recessive
a term used to describe a gene or trait that is hidden by a dominant gene
Genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism
fungi
plantlike heterotrophic organisms
Atom
the smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of the element
Biome
a large geographical area with characteristic life forms
Hybridization
when a breeder tries to combine the best of breeds
Kingdom
the broadest division in taxomic division
Natural selection
the process by which better adapted organisms survive and reproduce
Organelle
an organized structure within a cell that has a specific function
population
a group of interbreeding organisms that live in a particular location
Sex chromosome
one of a pair of chromosomesthat carry genes to determine sex and sex-linked traits
Species
a group of similar organisms capable of mating and producing fertile offspring
speciation
the formation of a new species
Food chain
the feeding relationships among the members of a community
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
a single strand nucleic acid important in translating the DNA code
Producers
organisms that manufacture their own food
Respiration
process of converting food energy into a form of energy usable by cells; the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between cells and their environment
Diploid
having 2 of each type of chromosome
Food Web
a series of interrelated food chains in an ecosystem