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262 Cards in this Set

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The study of objects beyond Earth's atmosphere.
Astronomy
The study of the air surronding Earth.
Meteorology
The study of the materials that make up Earth and the processes that form and change them.
Geology
The study of Earth's oceans.
Oceanography
The rigid outer shell of the planet. It includes teh crust and upper part of the mantle.
Lithosphere
A past of the Earth' layers that is molten adn flows like soft plastic. It is part of the mantle.
Asthenosphere
The water on the Earth.
Hydroshpere
The blanket of gases that surronds the Earth.
Atmosphere
All organisms on the Earth and the enviroments in which they live.
Biosphere
What are the 4 major areas of Earth Sceince?
Astronomy, Meteorology, Geology, and Oceanography.
What are the 4 major Earth Systems?
Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, Atomosphere, and Biosphere.
A suggested explanation for an observation. It is in the form of a question.
Hypothsis
The factor in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter.
Independent Variable
The factor in an experiment that can change if the independent varible is changed.
Dependent Variable
This is used in a neqperiment to show that the results are actually a reasult of the condition being tested.
Control
A modern version of the metric system. It is based on a decimal system that uses the number 10 as the base unit.
SI
It is used to express the number as a mutiplier and a power of ten.
Scientific Notation
List the Steps of an experiment.
Question, Test, Analyze, Conclude.
Maps taht are detailed and show elevation.
Topographic Maps
The connect points of equal elevation.
Contour Lines
The difference in elevation between two side by side contour lines.
Contourt Interval
It explains what the symbols on a map mean.
Map Legond
Is the ratio between distances on a map and the actual distance.
Map Scale
How are depressions shown on a map?
They are shown by lines called hauches off of the contour line at a 90 degree angle.
The process of collecting data about earth from far above Earth's surface.
Remote Sensing
The arrangement of electro magnetic radiation according to wavelength.
Elctromagnetic Spectrum
The number of waves taht pass a point in a second.
Frequency
It receives reflected wavelingths of energy emitted by Earth's surface, by visible light and infared radeation.
landsat Satellite
They use radar to map features on the ocean floor.
Topex/poseidon Satellite
A radio-navigation system of at least 24 satellites that allows its users to find their exact position on Earth.
GPS
The use of soundwaves to detect and mesure objects under water.
Sonar
How does a landsat satillite collect data?
Each satellite has a moving mirror taht scans the Earth. It takes the intensity of the energy, which is the converted to colors on the map.
How does a Topex/Poseidon Satellite map the ocean?
Radar is sent out from the satillite which is the bounced back from the ocean floor. How long it takes determines the depth of the water.
A naturally occurring inorganic solid with a specifc chemical composition and a definte crystalline structure.
Mineral
A solid in which the atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern.
Crystal
Molten material found beneath Earth's surface.
Magma
Minerals that contain silicon and oxygen.
Silicates
How do minerals form from magma?
When the magma rises and cools it can no longer move so it starts to interact chmically to form minerals.
How do minerals form from super saturated solution?
They can either drop out when the solution gets to saturated, or the water can evaporate leaving the particles to form into minerals.
Is a crystal bigger or smaller if it cools quickly?
Smaller
A mineral that contains a useful substance that can be mined for a profit.
Ore
They are vauable minerals taht are prized for their rarity and beauty.
Gems
They are rocks that formed from the crysstallization of magma.
Igneous rock
They are fine-grained igneous rocks that cool quickly.
Extusive
They are coarse-grained igneous rocks taht cool slowly beneath the Earth's surface.
Intrusive
Pieces of solid material taht have been deposited on Earth's surface by wind, water, ice, gravity, or chemical precipitation.
Sediments
weathering produced rock and mineral fragments, they are organized by size.
Clastic
It occurs when sediments are laid down on the ground or sink to the bottom of water.
Deposition
Are the physical and chemical processes that transform sediments into sedimentary rocks.
Lithification1
It occurs when mineral growth cements sedimant grains together into soild rock.
Cementation
Why do sediment deposits tend to form layers?
B/C faster moving water carries bigger particals the slower the water gets the smaller the partical it can carry so it goes biggest to smallest.
As sediments are burries what two factors increase with depth?
Heat and Pressure
Compare graded bedding and cross-bedding.
Graded Bedding is fund in marine sedimentary rock, it is formed when teh particals are in water adn the coarses heaviest settles first. CB is found in sand beaches. It is formed by migrating sand dunes moving across a inclined surface.
It is the % of open spaces between grains in a rock.
Porosity
Evaporated water from minerals that form mainly in restricted ocean basins in areas with high evaporation rates.
Evaporites
Compare and contrast the three main types of clastic sedimentary rocks.
Coarse grained are gravel sized and are transported by fast moving water. Medium grained are sand sized and have a hight porosity. Fine grained are silt sized and have a very low porosity.
Why do chemical sedimentary rocks form promarily in areas that have hight rates of evaporation.
B/c they are formed when water is carring minerals when the water evaporates it lets mineral fall and settle. So if the evaporation is high the minerals will form faster.
Why is coal an organic sedimnetary rock?
B/c it is made from once living things.
This occurs when a rock changes form while remaining solid.
Metamorphism
The continuous changing and remaking of rocks.
The rock cycle
How can the chemical compostition of a rock be changed during metamorphism?
It can change when hot fluids migrate in and out of the rock during metamorphism, which can change the orginal composition a of the rock.
What parts of the rock cycle occur deep in the Earth's crust?
Sedimentary, Igneous and metamorphic rocks are formed. Heat, pressure, crystallization, melting...
The process by which rocks on or near the Earth's surface breaks down and change.
Weathering
The removal and transportation of weathered material from one location to another.
Erosion
When rocks are broken down but it doesn't involve andy changes in composition.
Mechanical Weathering
When water freezes and unfreezes many times causing a rock to split.
Frost Wedging
The process by which outer layers are stripped away from the bed rock.
Exfoliation
The process by which rocks and minerals undergo changes in their compostion as the result of chemical reactions.
Chemical Wethering
The reaction of water with other substance.
Hydrolysis
The chemical reaction of oxygen with other substances.
Oxidation
What is the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering?
Mechanical is when things are broken down sbut not changed in composition. It occurs in cool dry climates. Chemical changes compostion and occurs in climates with warm temps.
List some variables that affect the rate of wethering. Which are the most important?
Temp, climate, rainfall, type of rock, and pressure.

Temp and rainfall
When erosion slows and materials are dropped in another location.
Depostion
Erosion by running water it makes a small channels on the side of the slope.
Rill Erosion
When a channel becomes to deep/wide to be called a rill erosion it is called this.
Gully Erosion
What is gravity's role in relationship to the other agents of erosion?
It forces things to be pulled/ pulled downward and causes all the other types of erosion.
Discribe the agents of erosion and how they affect Earth's landforms.
Running water, Glacial, wing, and plants and animals. They cause Earth's materials to moved from place to place.
What is the differece between Rill and Gully Erosion?
Rill=small Gully=big. Gully does more damage.
Teh loose covering of broken rock particles and decaying orgainic matter called humus, overlying th bed rock fo Earth's surface.
Soil
Soil located above its parent material.
Residual soil
Soil that has been moved from its parent rock.
Transported soil.
How does soil form?
It starts with the weathering of bedrock into very small pieces. Bacteria fungi and insects live in the materials they die leaving nutrients to form soil.
Swiftly moving mixtures of mud and water.
Mudflow
A rapid downslope movement of earth materials that occurs when a relativley thin block of loose siol rock and debris separates form the underlying bedrock.
Landslide
Landslides that occur in mountainous areas with thick accumulations of snow.
Avalanche
What precautions can humans take to avoid the dangers associated whith mass movements.
Build Trenches, coversteep slopes, build walls, and most importantly educate people about the dangers of building on a steep slope.
The lowering of the land surface that results form the wind's removal of surfce particle.
Deflation
A pile of wind blown sand that developes over time. Its shape is detrmined an sand avalibility, wind velocity/ directionand vegetation.
Dune
How are dunes formed?
They start when an object such as a rock or tree stops sand from moving. The sand accumelates there making a dune. The shpae depens on amount of sand, wind velocity (which is also determines the heigh)and direction and vegetaion.
A large moving mass on ice.
Glacier
A glacier that covers broad continent sized area.
Continental Glacier
Deep depressions that valley glaciers scoop out.
Cirques
Ridges consisting of till deposited by glaciers.
Morqines
When a glacicer breaks apart and a piece of it melts making a lake.
Glacial Lake
The broak flat area that extends aut from a stream's bank and is covered by exess water durning times of flooding.
Floodplain
What is the relationship between the carrying capacity of a stream and its discharge and velocity.
As discahrge increases carrying capacity increases. As velocity increases discahrge increases.
Discuss how a floodplain forms and why people live on them.
When a flood occurs the water carries a lot of sediments whith it. At flood water reseeds the sediments are dropped to the floodplain. The sedimnets that were dropped leave rich nutruence for plants.
The process by which precipitation that has fallen to the Earth becomes ground water.
Infilration
The depth below Earth's surface at which ground water completly fills all the pores in the material.
Zone of Saturation
The upper boundary of the zone of sateration.
Water Table
The ability of a material to let water pass through it.
Permeability
Permeable underground layers through which ground water flows easily
Aquifers
What is the greatest source of fresh water on the Earth?
Glaciers
Where is the water table closest to the Earth's surface:in a floodplain a swamp or on a hilltop?
Swamp
what two factors determine the flow velocity of ground water?
Permeability and steepness of the slope.
What is a aquuifer?
A permeable underground layer through which ground water flows easily.
List 4 comman sorces of ground water pollution.
Sewage, industrial waste, landfills, and agricultural chemicals.
Why are chemical contaminants a big problem in groundwater?
B/c they can't be filtered out easily.
A gas formed by the addition of a 3rd oxygen atom to an oxygen molecule located in the atmosphere and absorbs ultraviolent rays.
Ozone
The layer closest to the Earth. It has water vapor and weather.
Troposphere
It contains the ozone and is right above the troposphere.
Stratosphere
The ratio of water vapor in the air compared to how much water vapor there could be in the air.
Relative humidity
The constant moving of water between the atmosphere and Earth.
Water Cycle
The process of water changing from a liquid to a gas.
Evaporation
Discribe the process of a water droplet falling to the ground as precipitation.
The water droplet combines with another partical such as dust and forms around it. More water comes. When the partical gets to heavy for the cloud to hold it falls to the Earth as precipitaion.
The movement of air to the right above the equator and to the left below it. It is caused by Earth's rotation and combined with heat inbalaces causes globals winds.
Coroilis effect
Narrow bands of fast high altitude westerly winds.
Jet Streams
The narrow region separating two air masses of different densities.
Front
Name all the global wind belts and give a breif discribtion of where they are located.
Trade winds- at 30 degrees N and S. Air masses move from there to the equator and then back again. Horse Latitues-30 degrees N and S. They have very little wind. Doldrums (ITCZ)- At the equator and move slightly up and down. Little wind. Prevailing westerlies- Between 30 and 60 degrees N and S and flow from west to east. Polar easterlies between 60 and the poles N and S. Flow Northeast to Southwest in the Norther Hemisphere.
How dose the Coriolis effect affect the winds in the N and S hemispheres?
It makes the air flow right in the N Hemisphere and left in the S Hemisphere.
Compare and contrast a high pressure system and a low pressure system.
Low flows clockwise in the N hemisphere. It brings humid stormy weather. High flows counter clockwise in the N hemisphere and brings dry clear weather.
When hot air rises beacuse of unequal heating of Earth's surface. It is comman durning afternoon and evening.
Air-mass Thunderstorms
They are produced by advancing cold fronts which bring lines of thunderstorms and sometimes warm fronts which bring mild thunderstorms.
Frontal Thunderstorms
What conditions much be present for a thunderstrom to form?
Miosture in lower levels of atmosphere.something to lift the air. Air must continue ot cool with increasing altitude (be unstabe).
Why is a cold front thunderstrom more sever than a warm front one?
b/c the line between the warm and cool mass is steep so it moves more rapidly in a cold front. In a warm front the line is gradual so it moves slower.
Self sustaning extemly powerful stoms.
Super Cell
A violent whirling column of air in contact with the ground.
Tornado
Name some tornado safty points.
Go to the basement of a well built builing. Move under a sturdy piece of furniture. Stay away from windows. If in car get out immediately, and go to a ditch. Do not stay in mobile homes.
Extended periods of well blelow normal rainfall.
Drought
The icreased coldness caused by the wind.
Wind-chill-factor
What does the Wind Chill Index measure.
It measures how cold the air actully feels to a human.
A measure of the amount of dissolved salts in seawater.
Salinity
A transitional ocean layer that lies between the relatively warm sunlit water and the colder dark denser deep layer. It is characterized by temp that decreases rapidly with depth.
Thermocline
How does the salinity of seawater affect its density?
The more salt ions in the water the dense it is. The more salinity the denser.
The salinity of seawater is higher in subtropical regions than at the equator, why?
B/c the rate of evaporation exceds that of precipitaion in subtropical regions. Where as in the equator regions the precipitaion exceds that of evapotation so the water has more water less salt.
Which is more dense, cold freshwater or warm seawater?
Warm seawater. B/c the dences freshwater can be is 1 and the least dence seawater can be is 4 so even the difference in temp will not make a differece.
A rhythmic movement that carries energy through space or matter.
Wave
The highest point of a wave.
Crest
The lowest point of a wave.
Trough
Collapsing waves caused by the unstableness of the wave.
Breakers
The periodic rise adn fall of sea level.
Tides
A current caused by differences in the temp and salinity of ocean water.
Density Current
They are wind driven and affect mainly the upper few hunderd meters of the ocean they can move as fast as 100Km per day.
Sruface Currents
The upward motion of ocean water.
Upwelling
Discribe how wtaer moves as a wave passes.
The water moves up and down in a circular motion the returns to its origanal position.
Why are upwilling waters always cold?
B/c they upwell from the bottom of the ocean which is cold water.
How does the Coriolis effect control oceanic circulation?
It makes water move clockwise in the N hemisphere and counterclock wise in the S hemisphere.
The submerged parts of continents. They include the self sope and rise.
Continental Margins
Teh shallowest part of a continental margin extending seaward fromt he shore.
Continental Shelf
This is located beyond the continental shlfes where the seafloor drpos away quickly the slopeaverages 100m per Km.
Continental Slopes
Rapidly flowing water currents along the bottom of the sea taht carry heavy loads of sediments.
Turbidiry Currents
The gently sloping accumulation of deposits from turbididy currents that from at the base of continental slpes.
Continental Rise
The smooth parts of the ocean floor 5 or 6 Km below sea level. It is covered with muddy sediments that extend seaward from the continental margin.
Abyssal Plains
The deepest parts of the ocean basins which are elongated somethimes arc shapped depressions they are adjacent abyssal plains.
Deep Sea Trenches
They run through all the oceans basins and have a total length of over 65,000 Km. Chains of underwater mountains and contain many active and extinct volcanoes.
Mid-Ocean Ridges
A theory taht states new ocean crust is fromed at ocean ridges and destroyed at deep sea trenches.
Seafloor Spreading
What is the thoery of Sea floor spreading?
When magma (which is less dense than ocean floor) is forced toward the crust along and ocean ridge it fills a gap. When it hardens a small amount of new ocean crust is created. All this new land forces the older rock to move away.
How do ocean riges and deep sea trenches support the theory of seafloor spreaing?
The ridges grew bigger because there is always more coming there. The trenches grow deeper because there is always stuff leaving there.
It states Earth's crust and rigid upper mantel are broken down into enormous slabs called plates taht move.
The Theory of Plate Tectonics
Where 2 plates move apart form each other. Most form on the seafloor where they form ridges.
Divergent Boundaries
Where divergent boundaries form on land they form these long, narrow depressions.
Rift Valleys
Where 2 plates move toward each other is associated whith trenches, sand arcs, and folded mountains.
Convergent Boundaries
When one of the 2 plates descends beneath the other.
Subduction
A place where 2 plates slide horizontally past each other. The crust is destroyed or fractered.
Transform Boundary
Explain what happens at the 3 types of plate boundaries, and what they cause.
Divergent- Plates move away from eachother and make rigdes, mostly underwater.
Convergent-Plates move toward eachother and make trenches, sand arcs, and folded mountains.
Transform- Plates slide horizontally past eachother and make fractered crust or faults.
Where do transform boudaries most commonly occur?
In the ocean near ocean ridges.
What drives plate movement?
In the Asthenosphere a convection current is formed which causes the plates to move. Either push up or pull down.
What is the difference between convergine and divergent volcanism? Which is more comman?
C forms when 2 plates colide. One side slides under the other and magma is forced pu and forms a volcano. In D 2 plates move away form each other. Magma is for forces up into the fractures and fauls which makes volcanos. C is more comman.
What are hot spots?
They are unusually how regions of the mantel where high-temp plumes of mantle rise to the surface. They cause volcanoes. When they move (only verticly) upward they make volcanoes but when the plate moves the volcano becomes upactive.
Where and earthquake starts usaully many Km under earth's surface.
Focus
Point of Earth's sruface right above the point of focus.
Epicenter
A fracture or system of fractures in earth;s crust that occurs when stress is applied to quickly or ther is to much of it . Either compression, shear, or tention.
Fault
An instrument used to meausre horizontal or vertical motion during an earthquake.
Seismometer
Record produced by a seismometer that can provide individual tracking for each type of seismic wave.
Seismogram
Explain how a seismometer works.
Some have a rotatin drum covered dwith paper, a pen. a mass, and a frame that is ancored to the ground. The from vibrates which makes the mass vibrate which maker the pen vibrate which records on the paper a seismogram.
The measurment of the amount of energy released durning an earth quake. Which can be described using the Richter scale.
Magnitude
A numerical scale used to meausre the magnitude of an earthquake using the largest seismic wave.
Richter scale
It measures earthquakes magnitude and takes into account the size of the fault rupture, the amount of movement along the fault, and the rock's stiffness. It uses many siesmic waves not just one.
Moment Magnitude Scale
What is earthquake magnitude and how is it measured?
It is th amount of enery relesed from an earth quake and is measued using the moment magnitude scale.
Explain why data from atleast 3 seismic stations are nedded to locate and earthquakes epicenter.
B/c if you only have 1 or 2 it could be anywhere in that radius . 3 of them makes it exact.
A large ocean wave generated by veritcal motions of the sea floor during an earthquke.
Tsunami
Describe structurlal damage caused by earthquakes.
Buildings are deystroyed, walls fall down and collaspe the rest of the building. Medium high buildings fall most often because they have the same frequence as the earthquake, therfore sway more easily.
How are tsunamis generated?
By verticfcal motions of the seafloor.
whar are some of the factors considered in earthquake probability studies?
last time ther was an earthquake, rate at which stress builds in buildings, how much strain was released last time...
Which structure is less likely to suffer severe damages durning an earthquake: a high-rise steel frame htoel built on sediments, or a wood-frame house build on bedrock? explain.
Wood frame on bedrock,B/c bedrock is harder than sedimnets sediments can resonate with the earthquake and make bigger ground movements to sturdy the building. Bedrock would not move so the building would collapes.
Describe how mountains form along continental-continental plate boundarys.
When the polates collide the land becomes folded and fauled. Compressional forces break the crust into thick slabs that are thrust at each other. This can double the thinkness of the crust which makes the mountains made by the foling and faulting even bigger.
How do the mountains that form at oceanic-oceanic plate boundaries differ from the mountains that form at oceanic-continental plate boundaries?
Oceanic- continental make major mountains. They can thicken and get bigger and bigger. Oceanic-oceanic make island arcs. Which are littler mountains.
A record of earth's history from its origin 4.6 billion years ago to now.
Geologic Time Scale
The longest time unit. It is measured in billions of years.
Eon
The second longest time unit. It is measured in 100's of millions to billions of years.
Era
The third longest time unit. It is measured in 10's of millions to 100's of millions of years.
Peirods
The shortest time unit. It is measured in millions of years to 10's of millions of years.
Epochs
What is the basis for the development of the geologic time scale?
To be able to date rocks better and analize them more carfully.
How were the geologic time peirods named? On what basis are they defined?
BY the life forms that were abundant or became extinct in that time.
A principle that states that the processes that are occuring today were occuring when the Earth formed.
Uniformaitarianism
A principle that states that all sedimentary rocks are deposited in horizontal or nearly horizontal layers.
Original horizontalily
A princible that states that in a undisturbed rock sequence, the oldest rocks are at the bottom and each successive layer is younger then the one beneath it.
superposition
A principle that states that an intrusion or a fualt is younger than the rock it cuts across.
Cross-cutting relationship
A gap in the rock record caused by weathering and eroision.
Unconformity
The matching of outcrops of one geographic region to another.
Correlation
A fault or a dike cuts across a sequence of rock. What does this suggest about the relative ages of the rocks?
The fault is younger than the rock it cut.
The emission of radioactice particales and the resulting change into other elements over tie.
Radioactive decay
A process where scientists attempt to determine the ratio of parent nuclei to daughter nuclei within a given rock.
Radiometric dating
the time it takes for half of the original amount to decay.
Half-life
The science of comparing annual growth rings in trees to date ebents and changes in past environments
Dendrochronology
Bands of alternating light and dark colored sedments of sand clay and silt
varves
sediment layer that serves as a time marker in the rock record.
Key bed
What is the difference between relative age dating and absolute age dating?
RAD just gives the order of things. AAD give the accutual time.
A scientist finds the charred remains of a tree in a layer of volcanic ash thought to be from the eruption of Mt. Mazama some 6600 years ago. Which radioactie isotope, U-238 or C-14 would you use to find the age?
C-14 b/c wood is organinic and U-238 is to large.
They are the evididence or remains of once libing plants or animals.
Fossils
The change in population as a result of envionmental change.
Evolution
It discribes a fossil with parts that have not under gone andy chages since the organism died.
Original preservation
Fossils that have had all of its organic material removed and the hard parts have been changed.
Altered hard parts
the process by which pore spaces are filled in with mineral substaince.
Permineralization
Remains of plants or animals that can be used to correlate rock layers over large areas or to date a rock layer.
Index fossils
Is formed when the origanal shell parts of an organisim within a sedimentary rock are weathered and eroded. A hollowed out impression is left.
Mold
Fossil formed whien an earlier fossil leaves a cavity that gets filled with mineral or sediment.
Cast
What is the difference between a fossil with original preservation and an altered hard part?
OP are fossils with hard and soft parts the organism has not changed since it died. AHP are fossils were all the organic materialis removed and it is all hard.
What are the characteristics of an index fossil?
They are easily reconized, abundent and spread globaly.
Explain why the eruptions of Mount St. Helens in 1980 resulted in the formation of a key bed.
B/c the ash became clay and will be able to tell the date of the eruption forever.
The resouces tat the earth provides.
Natural resources
Natural resorurces that it is possible touse indefinitely without causing a reduction in the available supply.
Renewable resources
Replacement of renewable resources at the same rate at which they are consumed.
Sustainable yield
A resource that existis in a fixed am ount. they can be replaced only by geological, physical, and chemical process taht take hundereds of millions of years.
Nonrenewable resource
Name 3 renewable resoucres and 3 nonrenewable resoucres.
R- trees, water, oxygen
NR- Oil, coal, gold
Substanes that can adversely affect the surbibal , health, or activities of orgaisims.
pollutant
Occurs when air contains harmful levels of pollutaint; can be caused by volcanoes , forest fires, buning fossil fuels...
Air pollution
Why is air consitered to be an Earth resource?
B/c it has things in it that we need to survive.
Describe how air can be polluted by both natural processes and human acticities.
Volcanic ash and buring of fossil fuels.
How does the distribution of freshwater resources affect humans?
It can flood places if you build dams It can lower lakes so less fisthing and it can give people water that need it.
Describe 3 ways in which humans provide for their freshwater needs.
desalination,dams/reserviors, and tapping groundwater.
How can the amount of water used for irrigation be reduced?
Use trickle irrigation only or only water when you have to.
Energy sources taht formed over geologic time as a result of the compression and partial decomposition of plants and other organic matter.
Fossil fuels
Identify one alternatice energy resource that is associated with each of earth's systems: th atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere.
A= wind H= water B=biomass L=geothermal energy
Although solar energy could supply all of the world;s energy needs why isn't it used to do so?
B/c there are places that see little or no sulight and if there was a cloudy day you woul still need to rely on other ses of getting energy.
The use of energy resources in ways that are most productive.
Energy efficiency
Why should you be concerned about energy efficiency?
B/c if we don't do something now all the fuels willbe gone and we won't know how to get energy.
Why is it important to conserve resources instead of seekin gnew sources of energy?
B/c most of what we sue is wated and if we didn't waste it then we would have more and the cost would go down.
when the sun is directly overhead the tropic of cnacer which is 23.5 degrees N. It occurs on June 21.
Summer solstice
When the sun is directly over the tropic of capricorn which is 23.5 S it occurs on december 21.
Winter solstice
It occurs when the moon passes directly between the sun and earth and blocks our view for the sun
Solar eclipse
occurs when the moon passes through earth's shadow the earth is between the sun and moon
Lunar eclips
The state at which the moon's orbital and rotational periods are equal.
Synchronous rotation
What are the causes of the seasons on earth?
tilt of the earth and by earth's orbit around the sun
What would our seasons be like it earth's axis were not tilted.
We would have no seasons.
Explain why the Moon goes through phases as seen from Earth.
B/c we are seeing the refleced light form the sun to the moon so as the moon moes around th eearth. the sun hits it at different pointt so we can donly see part of the moon.
discribe solar and lunar eclipses.
S= moon is in way of sun we only see the glowing around the sun. L=the earth is between the moon and sun. The sun can't shine on the moon so we see ared moon.
wind of charged particles taht flows though out the solar system and begins as agas flowing ouward from the sun's core ar high speeds.
Soloar winds
Dark spots on the surface of the photosphere. They last 2 months and occur in pairs. They have a penumbra and umbra.
Sun spots
The combining of light weight nuclei, into heavier nuclei.
Fusion
Violent evuptions of paricles and radiation from the surface of the sun.
Solar flares
How does energy produced in the core of the sun reach the surface? How long does it take?
First energy is transfered particle to particle by radiation in teh rdiative zone. Next they are carried by convection in the convection zone to the surface. It takes about 170,000 years.
Groups of stars that resembel some thing.
Contellations
When only 2 stars are gravitationlly bound together and orbit a common center of mass.
Binary stars
Th apprent shift in position caused by the motion of the observer.
Parallax
How do astronomers know taht some stars are binary stars?
They can tell by tests that the star moves back and forth as it orbits.Also the orbital plane of a binary system can sometimes be seen edge-on from earth. Which makes the stars eclipes each other out. So they get brighter.
A cloud of interstelar gas and ust which ollapes on itself as a result of its own gravity.
Nebula
Collapsed dense core of a star that forms quickly while its outer layers are falling inward has a radius of about 10 km, a mass of 1:5 to 3 times that of the Sun and contains only neutrons.
Neutron star
A massice explosion that occurs when teh oter layers of a star are blown off.
supernova
Small, extremely dense remnant of a star whose gravity is so immense that now even light can escape its gravity field.
Black Hole
How does a new star form?
It starts with a cloud of interstellar gas and dust (a nebula) which collapes on itself as the cloud contarcts its rotaion forces it into a disk shape with a hot condensed object at the center (a protostar). The condensed object will become a new star.
what causes a supernova to occur?
When a star that begins whith mass about 8 to 20 times of the sun it will have a core that is too massive to be supported by electorn pressure. Once reactions in the core of the star stop creating iron the star collapses on itself. A neutron star is created quickly from the neutrons of the collapsed star. When the still falling outer layers hit the neutron star they explode outward. This explosion is called a supernova.