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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does argos mean?
Idle or Inert
Chemical properties, such as reactivity, depend on
an element's electron configuration
The highest occupied energy level of a noble gas atom is
filled
When the highest occupied energy level of an atom is filled with ______, the atom is ___ and _________
electrons,
stable,
not likely to react
The noble gasses have ____ electron configurations with 8 valencle electrons.
stable
The chemical properties of an element depend on
the # of VEs
Electron dot diagram
model of an atom in which each dot represents a VE. The symbol in the center represents the nucleus and all the other electrons in the atom.
Elements that do not have ____ sets of VEs tend to ____
complete

react
Some elements achieve ____ electron configurations through the ____ of electrons between atoms
stable

transfer
When an atom gains or loses an _____, the # ______ is no longer equal to the number of ______
electron
protons
electrons
Ion
an atom that has a net positive or negative electric charge
the charge on an ion is represented by..
a plus or a minus sign
What determines the size of an atom or Ion?
atomic radii
Anion
An Ion with a negative charge
Cation
An ion with a positive charge
A particle with a negative charge will attract a particle with a ____ charge.
positive
When an anion and cation are close together a _____ forms between them
chemical bond
Chemical Bond
the force that holds atoms or ions together as a unit
Ionic bond
force that holds cations and anions together
a _____ forms when electrons are transferred from one to another
ionic bond
An electron can move to a higher enegry leven when an atom
absorbs energy
Cations form when
electrons gain enough energy to escape from atoms.
The amount of enegry used to remove an electron is called
ionization energy
Ionization energy varies
from element to element
The lower the ionization energy, the easier it is to
remove an electron from an atom.
Ionization energy tends to _____ from left to right across a period
increase
It takes more energy to remove an electron for a ____ than from a ____ in the same period
nonmetal

metal
Compounds that contain ionic bonds are ionic componds, which can be represented by
chemical formulas
A ______ is a notation that shows what elements a compound contains and the ratio of the atoms or ions of these elements in the compound.
Chemical formula.
Chemical formula
a notation that shows what elements a compound contains and the ratio of the atoms or ions of these elements in the compound.
Subscripts
Used to show the relative # of atoms of the elements present.
If there is only one atom of an element in the formula, no ___ is needed
subscript
___ ____ is used to control dust that is stirred up by traffic on unpaved roads
Magnesium Chloride
The ____ and ____ of a crystal are related
structure

Shape
A chemical formula for an ionic compound tells you the ___
ratio of ions in the compound.
sodium chloride crystals are shaped like
cubes
In a sodium chloride crystal, each ion is surrounded by
6 oppositely charged ions
Crystals
solids whose particles are arranged in a lattice structure
The shape of an ionic crystal depends on the
arrangment of ions in its lattice
Crystals are classified into groups based on
the shape of their crystals
Shape of crystals
six sided hexagonal
What color is aluminum oxide?
white
Because natural rubies are ___, rubies are often ____
rare

Manufactured
A synthetic ruby boule has a hexagonal crystal structure identical to the

Its shape is determined by the
natural ruby gemstone.

arrangement of ions in the crystal
One way of making synthetic rubies is called
the pulled growth method
Who invented the pulled growth method?
Polish scientist Jan Czochralski
Making Rubies
1 Seed crystal
2 Lowering into the melt
3 Forming a boule
When an ionic crystal is struck,
ions are moved from their fixed positions
Ions with the same ___ repel one another
charge
The properties of an ionic compound can be explained by
the strong attractions among ions within a crystal lattice.
Covalent Bond
chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of VEs
single bond
When two atoms share one pair of electrons
Electron dot model
Bond is shown by pair of dots in space between symbols for hydrogen atoms
Structural formula
pair of dots is replaced by a line
Electron cloud model and space filling model
show that orbitals of atoms overlap when covalent bond forms
Two hydrogen atoms bonded together form a unit called
a molecule
Molecule
neutral group of atoms that are joined together by 1 or more covalent bonds
The attractions between the shared electrons and the portons in each nucles
hold the atoms together in a covalent bond
When two atoms share a pair of electrons
double bond
Covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally
Polar covalent bond
One meaning of the term polar
opposite in character, nature, or direction
When atoms form a polar covalent bond, the atom with the greater attraction for electrons has a partial _____ charge. The other atom has a partial ____ charge.
negative

positive
The _____ of atoms in a molecule and its _____ shape are factors that determine whether a molecule is polar or nonpolar.
type

shape
In a molecular compound, there are forces of ____ between molecules
attraction
Attraction between ____ molecules are stronger than atracttions between _____ molecules
polar

Nonpolar
discovered white solid called lime emits bright light when heated to high temp
Thomas Drummond
The name of an ionic compound must distinguish the compound from other ionic compounds containing the _____
same elements
The formula of an ionic compound describes
the ratio of the ions in the compound
Polyatomic Ion
covalently bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and acts as a unit
The name & formula of a molecular compounde decribe
the type & number of atoms in a molecule of the compound
1
mono
2
di
3
tri
4
tetra
5
penta
5
penta
6
hexa
7
hepta
8
octa
9
nona
10
deca
tungsten means
heavy stone
Metallic bond
the attraction between a metal cation & shared electrons that surround it
The cations in a metal form a lattice that is held in place by ___ between the cations and the surrounding ____
strong metallic bonds

VEs
The mobility of electrons within a metal latic explains
some of the properties of metals
Alloy
a mixture of two or motre elements, at least one of which is a metal. Alloys have the characteristic properties of metals
Copper alloys
Bronze, makes elements harder and stronger than either metal alone
scientists can design alloys with..
specific properties by varying the types and amounts of elements in an alloy
Steel alloys built
scyscrapers, ships, & automobiles
Other alloys
pure aluminum, magnesium