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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is Subduction?
The process by which ocan floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle.
_____ and _____ work together to move the ocean floor as if it were on a giant conveyor belt.
subduction and sea-floor spreading.
New Oceanic crust is hot, but as it moves away from the mid-ocean ridge it becomes cooler and denser it begins to sink beneath a what?
Deep-Ocean trench
Along what feature of the ocean floor does sea-floor spreading begin?
Mid-Ocean Ridge
What Scientist helped to discover the proccess of sea-floor spreading?
Harry Hess
What are the steps in the process of sea-floor spreading?
It begins at a mid-ocean ridge, which forms along a crack in the oceanic crust. Along the ridge, molten material that orms several kilometers beneath the surface reses and erupst. At the same time, older rock moves outward on obth sides of te ridge. As the molten material cools, it forms a strip of solid rock in the center of the ridge. When more mothen material flows into the crack, it forms anew strip of rock.
Where would you expect to find the oldest rock on the ocean floor?
Right at a Deep Ocean Trench.
What is the the theory of plate tectonics?
It states that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are inslow, constant motion, driven by concetion currents in the mantle.
What does the the theory of plate tectonics explain?
It explains the formation, movement, and subduction of Earth's plates.
What is a scientific theory?
It is a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.
What is a divergent boundary?
The place where two plates move apart, or diverge. They move apart.
When a divergent boundary develops on land, two of Earth's plates slide aprt. What does this create?
A deep valley called a rift valley.
What kind of boundary is created when two plates collide?
Convergent boundary
What kind of landform do convergent boundaries create?
Mountain Ranges
What does a divergent boundary create underwater?
Mid-Ocean Ridge
What is a Transform Boundary?
A place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions.
Is crust created or destroyed at a transform boundary?
What is the process by which the continets drift apart?
Continental Drift
What are plates?
Seperate sections of the Lithosphere.
What do scientists think causes the movement of Earth's Plates?
Convection Currents in the mantle
What are the three types of plate boundaries?
Transform, Convergent,and Divergent
What is likely to occur at a plate boundary where oceanic crust collides with continental crust?
The oceanic will go beneath the continental crust because it is more dense than the continental crust.
What are the 3 different types of stress that can occur in the crust?
tension, compression, and shearing.
What worked over millinos of years to change the shape and volume of rock?
The three types of stress Tension, Compression, and Shearing
What type of stress force pulls on the crust, stretching rock so that it become thinner in the middle?
What type of stress occurs when two plates are moving apart?
What is the stress force that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks?
What happens during compression?
one plate pushes against another
What type of stress pushes a masss of rock in twon opposite directions>
What can shearing cause rock to do?
To break and slip apart or to change its shape.
What is stress?
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.
Where do most faults occur?
Plate Boundaries
What is an earthquake?
a shaking and trembling thatresults fromthe movement beneath the Earth's surface.
What is the area beneaththe Earth's surface where cok that is under stress breaks, triggering an earthquake.
What is the point on the surface directly above the focus?
What are seismic waves?
waves that carry energy from an earthquake away from the focus
What are the 3 main categories of seismic waves?
P waves, S waves, and Surface Waves
What are the first waves to arrive?
P waves
What are the second waves to arrive?
S waves
What does the S in S wavs stand for?
What does the P in P waves stand for?