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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Erosion is the process by which wind and moving water carry away bits of rocks and other material.

Bits of rocks are moved and dropped in another area where they build up and make soil.
Why is soil important?
Soil provides nutrients (food), water, air, and safety for plants and animals.

Soil provides us with the things we need in our life.
What determines a soil type?
The amounts of humus, clay, silt, and sand.
What are the properties of soil?
The properties of soil are ...

- color/texture,
- habitat,
- ability to hold water (absorbtion),
and richness(fertility).
What is the best type of soil to grow plants?
The natural process of breaking down rock is _____________.
Fertile soil is rich in nutrients and provides the right conditions for plants to grow.
What is soil made of?
Soil is made of humus and bits of weathered and eroded rock.
What factors contribute to weathering?
The factors that contribute to weathering are ...
- Lichens break up the surface of rocks to get nutrients.
- Temperature cause rocks to expand and contract and break off over time.
- Water from rain pounds rocks like a hammer and breaks up rocks.
- Water freezes and breaks rocks apart when it expands.
- Plant roots break up rocks.
fertile soil
Soil that has the many nutrients needed to grow plants.
Topsoil is the top layer of soil.

Topsoil contains...
- rotting plant and animal materials called humus,

- bits of rocks from the weathering of rocks above ground.
The ability to absorb water.
Cotton which is grown to make clothing depends mostly on ______________ to grow.
Subsoil is ...
- the second layer of soil,
- made up of mostly small rock,
- formed as larger rocks are broken up.
In what soil layers does most weathering take place?
Most weathering takes place in the...
- subsoil and
- bedrock.
What does adding lime to soil do for the soil and plants?
Adding lime makes water dissolve nutrients more slowly in soil.

This gives plants more time to absorb nutrients before the nutrients are washed away.
The soil layer that is affected most by erosion is ____________.
What does soils ability to absorb water affect?
The ability of soil to absorb water affects how much water...
- plants and animals have during dry periods and
- how much water runs off during rainstorms or as snow melts.
What are the three layers of soil?
The three layers of soil are ...

- topsoil,
- subsoil, and
- bedrock.
When the temperature is hot during the day and cold at night rocks are likely to ____________________.
crack or weather
Which layer of soil contains the most dead plant and animal material?
How is soil made?
Soil is made by weathering and erosion...

- Temperature changes, wind and water break rocks apart.
- Small plants grow in the cracks of rocks. Plant roots continue to break the rock apart.
- Wind and water move bits of weathered rock to new places and become part of well developed soil.
What does adding sand to soil do for the soil and the plants?
Adding sand to soil makes water flow through it more easily.

Sand provides a well drained soil for plants that like dry roots.
Tree roots reach down to the middle layer of soil, breaking up the rocks there.
This soil layer is called ___________________.
The soil part _____________ is made up of rotting plant and animal materials.
Weathering is the process that breaks up rocks.

Temperature change, wind, rain, plants, and animals cause weathering.
The soil at the top of a hill has alot of these smallest type of soil particles called
What is the best soil for growing plants?
The best type of soil to grow plants in is ...

- fertile soil made of equal parts of sand, clay, and humus.
_______________ becomes richer as dead plants decay.
Soil that is ____________, is capable of growing alot of plants.
Sulfur increases the rate at which water dissolves nutrients.
Runoff is the amount of water that is not absorbed by the soil and runs to lower ground.

Packed DRY clay soil with few plants causes alot of runooff.

Streams, rivers and lakes are sometimes made by runoff.
The movement of bits of rock by wind and water is called ______________.
How is soil formed?
Soil is made from weathered and eroded rock.

Soil forms by the weathering and erosion of rocks.
- In weathering, plants and changes in weather cause rocks to break apart.
- In erosion, wind and moving water carry rocks to new places.
What would you do to make soil absorb more water?
I would add humus to the soil to make it absorb more water.
Fertilizer is a substance that adds nutrients to soil.
Bedrock the bottom layer of soil.

Bedrock is ...
- mostly soil rock,
- sometimes called "parent rock", and
becomes part of the subsoil and topsoil when it slowly cracks and breaks up.
an environment that meets the needs of an organism.
Humus is ...

- dark colored,
- rotting plant and animal materials found in topsoil.
Which soil type best absorbs water?

What type of soil absorbs water best?
Soil rich in humus.

Soil with alot of humus has rotting plant and animal matter in it that makes it act like a sponge and absorb more water that sandy soil.

Soil with alot of clay can hold water, but is to
dense for plants roots to get the water. There is less runoff in soil rich in humus.
How does soil meet the needs of living things?
Soil provides water, air,nutrients and a habitat to meet the basic needs of living things.

-Plants and animals that need little water can live in sandy desert soil.
-Soil high in humus is rich in nutrients and water great for farming.
-Soil high is clay, recycles nutrients quickly.