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24 Cards in this Set

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Igneous Rock
Formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.
Metamorphic Rock
Formed when another rock is changed by extreme heat or pressure.
Sedimentary Rock
Formed by weather or pieces of other rocks.
Extrusive Rocks
Formed from lava flowing onto the surface of the Earth.
Intrusive Rocks
Formed from slowly cooling magma deep within the Earth’s crust.
Cementation
Process where particles of loose sediment fill spaces and form a hard cement like substance.
Compaction
Process where pressure presses particles of sediment.
Lithification
Process where soft sediments become hard rock.
Dikes
Vertical cuts across existing rocks.
Intrusions
Magma that pushes into cracks of rocks.
Sills
Magma forms in horizontal cracks in existing rocks.
Fossil
Remains of prehistoric animals and plants preserved in rocks.
Paleontology
Study of fossils.
Geologic Time Scale
Covers the Earth’s history from its origin to the present.
Era
First subdivision of the geologic time scale
Period
a subdivision of an Era - Second on Geological Time Scale
Epoch
Subdivision of a Period - Last on Geologic Time Scale
Physical charactertistics of rocks include...
color, texture, size, shape, stacking arrangement
Rocks can be classified by...
a variety of textural and compositional characteristics
3 Groups of Rocks
Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
The size of crystals are determined by...
the rate of cooling
Sedimentary rocks can be formed by...
evaporation, cementation, compaction, & crystallization
When can rocks change form?
When conditions in their environment change
Fossils
* Can provide information about ancient plants and animals

* Can be classified into four different groups