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49 Cards in this Set

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hormone
The chemical product of an endocrine gland. examples: adrenaline, thyroxin, and growth hormone.
A chemical messenger that turns on, turns off, speeds up, slows down the activites of different organs and tissues
pituitary gland
Communicates with the hypothalamus to control many b ody activites, including growth, stimulating the thyroid and directing the kidneys to regulate the amount of water in the blood.
hypothalmus
A tiny part of the brain near the middle of your head, is the link between the nervous system and the endocrine system
egg
The female sex cell (23 chromosomes, 200,000 x largers than a sperm cell
sperm
The male sex cell ( 23 chromosomes)
fertilization
The joining of a sperm and an egg. An important part of reproduction (proudces a zygote)
Reproduction
The process by which living things produce new individuals of the same type.
zygote
A fertilized egg, that's produced when fertilization occurs. (produced when the nuclei of a sperm and egg join)
chromosomes
Rod-shaped structures, in the nucleus of a cell that are contained in sex cells that carry information that controls inherited characteristics, such as eye color and blood type
testes
the oval shaped organs of the male reproductive system in which sperm and testasterone are produced. the testes are actually made up of clusters of hundreds of tiny-coiled tubes. sperm are formed inside these tubes.
Testosterone
The hormone produced by the testes that controls the development of physical characteristics in men (including facial hair, deep voice, broad shoulders, ability to produce sperm)
scrotum
An external pouch of skin, the testes are located in. keeps the location 2 or 3 degrees C below the usual body tem of 37 degrees C
Semen
the mix of sperm cells and fluids. contains huge # of sperm about 5 to 10 million sperm per drop
penis
an organ that semen leaves the body through the male uretha runs through this.
ovaries
located slightly below the waist, of a woman, one on each side of the body. their major role is to produce egg cells and estrogen.
estrogen
a hormone that triggers the development of some adult female characteristics(inclduing hips widdening, the development of breasts)
oviduct
where each ovary is located near the two oviducts are passageways for eggs, ovary to the uterus, and are the places where fertilization usually occurs.
uterus
a hollow muscular organ about the size of a pear (womb)
vagina
a muscular passageway leading to the outside of the body (the birth canal)
menstrual cycle
the monthyly cycle of changes that occurs in the female reproductive system
ovulation
the process when halfway through a typical cycle the mature egg is relased from the ovary into an oviduct
menstruation
the process when the extra blood and tissue of the thickened lining pass out of the body through the vagina.
embryo
A devloping human during the first eight weeks after fertillization has occured.
amniotic sac
A fluid-filled sac that cushions and protects a developing fetus in the uterus.
placenta
A membrane that becomes the link between the devloping embryo or fetus and the mother.
umbilical cord
A ropelike structure that forms in the uterus between the embryo and the placenta.
fetus
A developing human from the 9th week of development until birth.
adolescence
the stage of development between childhood and adulthood when children become adults physically and mentally
puberty
the period of sexual development during the teenage years in which the body becomes able to reproduce.
mitosis
the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daugher cell (copys cell!!!)
chromosome
A doupple rod of condensed chromation (during mitosis)
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid, the genetic material that carries information about an organism that is pased from parent to offspring.
traits
the different physical characteristics that can be passed on to their offspring
heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring
purebred
a plant that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent (homozygous)
genes
The factors that control traits. a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a special trait
alleles
The different forms of a gene.
offspring inherit one alele from each parent for each trait
ex: T represents allele for Tall and t represents allele for short
individual alleles control the inheritance of traits. some alleles are dominant and otheres are recessive.
dominant allele
an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when allele is present. a dominant allele is represented by a capital letter. ex: T= tall,
recessive allele
an allels whose masked or covered up whenever dominant allele is present
ex: t=short
hyrbrid
an organism that has 2 different alleles for a trait. an organism that is hererozygous for a particular trait.
ex: Tt
probability
the likelihood that a particular event will occur
punnett square
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
phenotype
an organism's physical appearance, or visible traits, ex: black fur
genotype
is an organism's genetic make-up or combination of alleles. ex: BB or Bb for black fur
homozygous
a description of an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait. ex: homozygous tall=
TT, homozygous short = tt, (PUREBRED)
heterozygous
a description of an organism that has two different alleles for a trait. ex: heterozygous tall- Tt, (HYBRID)
clone
An organism that is genetically identical to another organism
karotype
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell.
amniocentesis
a technique by which a small amoutn of the fluid that surrounds a developing baby is removed; the fluid is analyzed to determine wheter the baby will have a genetic disorder.