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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Recieving Information
THe nervous system recieves information about what is happening both inside and outside your body.
Responding to Information
It also directs the way in which your body responds to this information.
Maintaining Homeostasis
In addition, your nervous system helps maintain homeostasis.
a message carrying cell, nerve cell
The Three Jobs of the Nervous System
Recieving information, responding to information, and maintaining homeostasis.
Structure of a neuron
Dendrites, cell body, and axon
carries impulses toward the cell body
cell body
Has threadlike extensions and contains a nucleus
carries impulses away from the cell body
Kinds of Neurons
Sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons
Sensory neuron
picks up stimuli from the internal or external environment and converts each stimulus into a nerve impulse
carries nerve impulses from one neuron to another. Some interneurons pass impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons
Motor Neuron
sends an impulse to a muscle and the muscle contracts in response
How does a nerve impulse travel?
A nerve impulse travels from the sensory neuron to the interneuron then to the motor neuron.
Divisions of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System
Parts of the Central Nervous System
Brain and the Spinal Cord
made up of billions of INTERNEURONS
Parts of the Brain
Cerebrum, Cerebellum and the Brainstem
interprets input from the senses, controls the movement of skeletal muscles and carries out complex mental processes
coordinates the actions of your muscles and helps you keep our balance
controls involuntary actions
Spinal Cord
the link between your brain and the peripheral nervous system
Perpiheral Nervous System
consists of netowrk of 43 pairs of nerves--12 pairs (originate in the brain) 31 pairs (spinal nerves-begin in spinal cord). Also consists of the Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Control voluntary actions
control involuntary actions
automatic response that occurs very rapidly w/o concious control
example of a reflex
stimulus- Touching a hot plate
Response- Pulling your hand away
Safety & Nervous System
The nervous system can suffer injuries that interfer with its functioning
Ways in which nervous system can be damaged
concussion, spinal cord injuries
A bruise-like injury of the brain
Spinal Cord Injuries
They occur when the spinal cord is cut or crushed
Ways to decrease injuries in the brain or spinal cord
a. Wear a seatbelt in the car
b. Make sure the water is deep enough before you dive into a pool
c. Wear a helmet when riding a bike
Vision (sight)
Your eyes respond to the stimulus of light. They convert that stimulus ino impulses that your brain interprets, enabling you to see
How light enters the eye
WHen rays of light strike the eye then strike the cornea. The light then passes to the pupil. The iris them regulates the amount of light entering the eye.
How light is focused
Light passes through the pupil and strikes the lens. The lens focuses light.
How you see an image
The retina contains 130 million receptor cells that respond to light. There are two types of receptors rods and cones. Rods enable you to see black and white cones enable you to see color.
Vision Problems
Nearsightedness and Farsightedness
Can see nearby objects clearly, but have trouble seeing far away objects. (eyeball is too long--corrective lenses shape-concave)
Can see distant ogjects clearly, but cannot see nearby objects (eyeball is too short--corrective lenses shape-convex)
How sound is produced
Sound is produced by vibrations
Sound vibrations in the ear
The ear is structures to receive sound vibrations
How you hear
The fluid in the cochlea vibrates and stimulates receptors. Sensory neurons then send nerve impulses to the cerebrum through the auditory nerve.
Sense of Balance
Above the cochlea in your inner ear is the semicircular canal, which is responsible for your sense of balance
Smell and Taste
senses of smell and taste work closely together, and both depend on chemicals
Chemicals trigger responses in recpetors in the nose and mouth...
nose (can distinguish 50 basic odors)
tounge (only 4 kinds of taste buds)(sweet, sour, salty, & bitter)
found in all areas of your skin. Receptors in the skin respond to the light touch, heavy pressure, pain, and tempurature change
legal drugs that help the body fight disease and injury
Drug Abuse
The deliberate misuse of drugs for purposes other that medical uses
Immediate Effects of Abused Drugs
Nasea, a fast irregular heartbeat, sleepiness, headaches, dizziness, trembling
Drug users need more and more of a drug to produce the same effect on the body
The body becomes physically dependent on a drug
Kinds of Drugs
Depressants, Stimulants, Anabolic Steroids
Slow down the activity of the central nervous system
speed up the body process
anabolic steroids
chemicals similar to hormones. May increase muscle size and strength
a drug found in many beverages
Effects of Alcohol on the Nervous System
Vision blurred, Speech becomes unclear, control of behavoir is reduced, and judgement becomes poor
Effects of Alcohol on the Cardio System
Heartbeat rate and blood pressure increases. With large amounts of alcohol, the heartbeat rate and blood pressure may decrease.
Effects of Alcohol on the Excretory System
Causes kidneys to produce more urine, as a result the drinker loses more water than usual
Effects of ALcohol on the Skin
Blood overflow to the skin increases causing rapid loss of body heat
Effects of Alcohol on the Liver
over many years, liver can damage can result in cell destruction
Effects of Alcohol on the Digestive System
Alcohol is absorbed by stomach and passes to the bloodstream quickly
Long Term Alcohol Abuse
Can cause the destruction of cells in the brain and liver and can lead to addiction
A disease where a person is physically and mentally addicted to alcohol