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70 Cards in this Set

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The _____ is the smallest unit of life that conducts all life functions.
cell
Give the definition of cell membrane.
the outside covering of a cell; controls what goes in and out.
Give the definition of cytoplasm.
Gel-like fluid inside the cell that contains the other organelles
Give the definition of nuclues.
contains DNA and it is the control center.
Give the definition of Vacuole.
acts as a storage center
Give the definition of Chloroplast.
food making structures in plant cells only.
Give the definition of Mitochondria
uses oxygen to release energy from food; known as the powerhouse.
Give the definition of cell wall.
provides support and protection for plant cells only.
what's the difference between plant and animal cells.
Plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts and animal cells do not.Plant cells have 1 or more huge vacuoles where animal cells have very small, if any, vacuoles.
what shape does the bacteria called cocci have?
round
what shape is the bacteria bacilli in?
rod- shaped
What shape is the bacteria spirilla in?
spiral
What do all protist have in common?
They all have a nuclus. They all are one-celled. And they all live in water.
What type of protist uses a pseudopod to move and gather food?
The amboea
What type of protist use cilia to move and gather food?
Paramecium
what protist uses flagella to move and gather food? This protists also makes its own food through photosynthesis.
euglena
Photosynthesis
occurs in plant cells; uses energy from sunlight along with carbon dioxide and water to make food(sugars) for the plant. Oxygen is given off as waste.
Respiration
occurs in mitochondria. Combines glucose and oxygen to make energy for the cell. Water and CarbonDioxide are the waste products.
elimination
rids the cell of wastes products through the process of diffusion. As waste products accumulate and build up in the cell, it will move to a less crowded space outside the cell.
Mitosis
Cell reproduction. It enables a parent cell to divide and make 2 new daughter cells that are exactly the same as the original parent cell. it is necessary for growth.
Genes
usually known as the physical unit of heredity. They are formed from DNA located on chromsomes and are responsible for the inherited characteristics that distinguish individuals from each other. Humans have 30,000 separate genes.
inherited traits
passed from parent to offspring. Examples: eye colors, dimples, and face shape.
How are dominate traits writen?
are always expressed and writen with a cpital letter.
Recessive trait.( give def. and tell how it is written)
Only shows up when there are two of them, otherwise the dominant trait shows. written with a lowercase letter.
Phenotype
an organism's physical appearance. Using words to describe the trait like tall or short.
Genotype
the genetic make-up of an organism. Reprsents the allele combinations that are created in an offspring that represent a certain trait.
what do Punnett squares show?
The probibility or the likelihood that something would happen.
some characteristics are_____ and some are _____ or can be influenced by _______ factors.
inherited
acquired
environmental
acquired traits
Learned behaviors after birth. Examples: thumb sucking,twirling hair, length of hair.
Environmental factors
factors that can influence traits . Examples of things they influence: temperatures, diet, medical care ability, and living conditions.
Name the levels if organization in order fom least complex to most complex.
cell, tissue, organ, organ system.
tissue
specialized cells working together
cell
basic unit of structure and function in the human body. Very specialized.
What are the four types of tissue?
nerve tissue
connective tissue
muscle tissue
epithelial tissue
nerve tissue
carries nessages to the brain and body
connective tissue
connects body parts and provides support
muscle tissue
contracts and shortens making movement occur
epithelial tissue
covers the suface in and out of your body
organ
two or more tissues working together to perform a specific function. EX.heart, brain, kidney, pancreas,gall bladder.
organ system
A group of 2 or more organs working together to prform a specific function for the body. All organ systems work together and depend on each other.
How many organ systems are in the human body?
11
What system is the heart in and what is its function?
Circulatory.
To pump blood to lungs and body.
What system are blood vessels and what is their function?
Circulatory.
Tubes that carry blood anywhere in the body.
What are the three types of blood vessels?
arteries, capillaries, and veins.
What system is the nose in and what is its function?
Respiratory
Collects air and warms and moistens it.
what system is the trachea in and what is its function?
Respiratory.
" the windpipe" carries air from nose to lungs
what system is the bronchi in and what is its function?
Respiratory.
Split at end of trachea that lead to left and right lung.
what system is the diaphragm in and what is it function?
Respiratory
Dome-shaped muscle that contracts so lungs can fill with air.
what system is the mouth in and what is its function?
Digestive.
1st stage of digestion occurs here. Both mechanical(teeth) and chemical(saliva)
what system is the esophagus in and what is its function?
Digestive.
food tube that leads from mouth to stomach
what system is the stomach in and what is its function?
Thick, muscular J-shaped pouch that continues chemical and mechancial digestion for about 4 hours
what system are the small intestines in and what are their functions?
Digestive.
most chemical digestion takes place here. Absorbtion occurs here.
what system are the large intestines in and what are their functions?
Digestive.
Water is absorbed here. This is where waste is prepared for elimination.
What system are the rectum and anus in and what are their functions?
Digestive.
the rectum stores solid waste and then it exits through the anus
What system is the liver in and what is its function?
Digestive.
Makes bile.
What system is the Gall Bladder in and what is its function?
Digestive.
stores bile until it's needed.
What system is the pancreas in and what is its function?
Digestive.
Makes insulin and produces enzymes that break down starches,proteins and fats in the small intestines.
what system is the skin in and what is its function?
Integumentary.
Covers body, prevents water loss, protects from infection, regulates body temp, geta rid of waste through sweat & produces vitamin D.
what system are bones in and what are their function?
skeletal
Protects organs, makes blood cells, support and allow movement, stores minerals.
what system is the kidney in and what is its function?
Excretory.
Cleans and filters blood and get rid of urea, and excess water which is urine
what system are the ureters in and what are their functions?
Excretory.
Tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder
what system is the uninary gallbladder in and what is its function?
Excretory.
stores urine until it is realeased from the body in a muscular sac.
what system is the urethra in and what is its function?
Excretory.
Small tube that allows urine to exit
what system is the brain in and what is its function?
Nervous
Part of the Central Nervous System. Made of 3 parts.
cerebrum
The part of the brain that controls sense, memory, problem solving and much more.
cerebellum
the part of the brain that controls balance
Brainstem
also called medulla oblongotta. The part of the brain that controls involuntary actions such as your heartbeat.
what system is the spinal cord in and what is its function.
Nervous.
Bundle of nerves that run down the center of the back , up to the brainstem. Connects the PNS and the CNS.
what system is the peripheral nerves in and what are their function?
Nervous
Network of nerves that branch out throughout the body and connect to the spinalcord. Made up of sensory and motor neurons.
what system are skeletal muscles in and what are their function?
Muscular
Voluntary muscles that cause the skeleton to move.