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90 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Matter
anything that has mass and volume
Mass
the amount of matter ia substance or an obect
Volume
the amount of space taken up by a subtance or object
Kinetic Energy
the energy of motion
Kinetic Molecular Theory
an explanation of the behaviour of molecules in matter
Thermal Expansion
an increase of volume ina substance when its temperature is raised
Thermal Contraction
a decrease in volume in a substance when its temperature is lowered
Thermal Energy
the total energy of the particles making up a substance
Temperature
a measure of the average kinetic enery of the particles in a substance
Melting
the process of changing state from a solid to a liquid
Evaporation
the process of changing state from a liquid to a gas
Condensation
the process of changing state form a gas to a liquid
Solidification
the process of changing state from a liquid to a solid by the removal of heat
Sublimation
the process of changing state from a solid to a gas without going through the liquid stage
Deposition
the chan
ge in state of a substance from gas directly to solid
melting point
the temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy
boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas
fluid
a form of matter that can flow
density
the mass of a given volume
displacement
the amout of space an object takes up when placed in a fluid
force
a push or a pull that acts on an object
contact forces
forces that affect objects they touch
weight
the amount of force on an object due to gravity
force meters
a device that measures force by means of a spring or elastic





















a device that measures force by means of a spring or elastic that stretches or compresses when pulled or pushed
balanced forces
forces that are equal n strength and opposit in direction
unbalaned forces
forces that cause a change in the speed or direction of an object
pressure
the amount of force applied over a given area to an object
compression
a decrease in volume produced by a force
deformation
a change of shape of a solid without a change of volume
viscosity
the resistance of a fluid to flow
flow rate
the speed at which a fliuid flows from one point to another
adhesion
the attraction beteen the moecules of two different substances in contact with each other
cohesion
the stength with which the particles of an object or fluid attract each other
surface tension
a property of a liquid in which molecules at the surface of the liquid attract each other
one atmosphere
the atmosheric pressure at sea level
buoyant force
the upward force exerted by a fluid
convection
the process of heat tranfer through the flow of a heated substance such as air or water
static pressure
the force exerted by an enclosed, non-moving fluid when pressure is applied to the fluid
dynamic pressure
the force exerted by a fluid in motion
hydraulic systems
a device that transmits an applied force through the use of liquid under pressure
vlave
a structure positioned between each of the four cambers of the heart that allows blood to flow in only one direction
check valves
an hydraulic valve that allows fluids to flow in only one direction
hydraulic multiplication
using an incompressible fluid to increase and transmit a force from one point to anothr
pneumatic systems
the use of gas in an enclosed system under pressure
circulatory system
the body system that moves blood through out the body
hydrologist
a scientist who studies Earth's water systems and helps find solutions to problems related to water quality and quantity
oceanographers
a scientist who studies oceans
salinity
a measure of the amount of salts dissovled in a liquid
density
the mass of a given volume
run-off
water that is not absorbed immediatly by the Earth's surface but flows down hill over the land and buildings into water bodies and sewers
gravity
the attractive force between objects
drainage basin
the area of land on which precipitaition falls and drains into a common river
aquifer
an underground layer of porous rock through which water can flow quite easily
reservoir
a large natural or artificial lake or holding pond used to collect and store water for human use
water table
in the ground the level beneath which porous rock is are filled with water
glaciers
a large moving mass of compressed ice and snow
crevasses
deep crack that forms in a glacier
icebergs
a large chunk of ice that breaks off a glacier into the ocean
weathering
the gradual process of breaking down rock into smaller fragments
physical weathering
the gradual process of breaking down rock physically wthout changing its composititon
erosion
the transport of sediments from one place to another by agents such as water, glacier gravity, and wind
deposition
the change in state of a substance from gas directly to solid without forming a liquid
sinkholes
a large depression in the ground caused by the collapse of an underground cave
karst
an area with many sinkholes
striations
scratch marks cut into rocky glaciers slowly moving over it
delta
an area of built- up sediment deposited by a river where the river empties into an ocean or a lake
continental margin
the part of continents that lies under the ocean and inludes the continental shelf, the continental slope, and the continental rise
ocean basin
deep, wide depression in Earth's surface that contain the oceans
tectonic processes
the movements of Earth's tectonic plates as they float over Earth's moltten layers
trench
a long V-shaped groove created in the ocean floor when an oceanic plate pushes against a continental plate
abyssal plains
the wide, flat part of the ocean lying beteen the continental margins and mid- ocean ridges
seamount
an inactive, underwater volcano that developed near a mid ocean ridge but has now shifted away as the oceanic plates continue to move apart
continental shelf
the shallowest part of a continental margin that extends out into the ocean from the shore
continental slope
an area that drops off rapidly to the oean basin from he edge of the continental shelf
turbidity current
a fast moving underwater landslide caused b the sudden collapse of sediment built up along the continental slope
continental rise
an area at the front of th continental slope
submarine anyons
a deep gully carved in the ontinental shelf and continental slope by turbidity currents
wind action
one of the forces that cause oean surface currents to move
coriolis effect
an alteration of direction in the paths of winds and currents due to Earth's spin
density current
the movement of a mass of cold dense ocean water as it sinks beneath warmer surface water
upwelling
a current of cold dense water flowing upward from the ocean flow
swells
large rolling ocean waves
headlands
a section of coastline that extend out into the ocean
bays
an indented aresa of coastline where the ocean reaches into the land
tide
the daily cycle of the rise and fall of ocean water
el Nino
a warm ocean current tht developes each year off the cosat of the Ecuader and Peru
la Nina
colder than normal water coming to the surface off the coast of South America due to upwelling
benthic zone
the cold, dark paart of the ocean that extends deeer than 4000m from the surface
pelagic zone
the upper part of the ocean that extends from the surface to depth of 4000m
acid precipitation
precipitation with a pH of less that 5.0 that forms when water vapour combines with nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide