Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/58

Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which law is this - When two contrasting traits are crossed only the dominant appears in the next generation.
Law of Dominance
Which law is this - Chromosomes (alleles) separate (anaphase) during the formation of sex cells
Law of Segregation
Which law is this - chromosomes (alleles) separate indepently of each other during the formation of gametes
Law of Independent Assortment
Which law is this - the chance of two events occuring together is the product of their probabilities occuring separately
Law of Probability
Is the law of Probability one of Mendel's laws?
No.
What is the law of probability the same as?
Chance
Who developed the laws of genetics?
Gregor Mendle
What laws are included in the laws of genetics?
Law of Dominance, Law of Segregation, Law of Independent Assortment
What did Thomas Hunt Morgan do?
Experimented with fruit flies
Name three reason why fruit flies are used.
They reproduce rapidly (short life cycle), produce large numbers of offspring, and they have easily identifiable phenotypes (easy to see)
Who experimented with fruit flies?
Thomas Hunt Morgan
What is this called - some traits carried on the X chrosome do not have an allele on the Y chrosomes because it is much shorter
Hemizygous
What did Morgan prove -
the chromosome theory of heredity
What is Hemizygous?
some traits carried on the X chrosome do not have an allele on the Y chrosomes because it is much shorter
What did Walter Sutton study?
Grasshoppers
What did Wa;ter Sutton propose?
He proposed that chrosomes carried the cell's units of inheritance
What were these "cell units" called?
Mendel's "factors" of inheritance
Who proved the chrosomes theory of heredity?
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Who studied Grasshoppers
Walter Sutton
What is a trait expressed if present?
Dominant
What is a trait expressed only if homozygous
Recessive
Two different alleles for a trait
Two different alleles for a trait
Two similar alleles for a trait
Homozygous
Genetic makeup of an organism
Genotype
physical appearance of an organism
Phenotype
When neither allele is dominant and there is a blending in the phenotype
Incomplete Dominance
When two contrasting alleles are expressed at the same time
Codominance
Breeding of related organisms it is used to maintain desirable traits
Inbreeding
Breeding used to introduce desirable traits
Outbreeding
When a trait is controlled by more than two alleles
Multiple Alleles
Traits controlled by more than one gene pair
Polygenic traits
Give some examples of polygenic traits
Eye, hair, and skin color, height and weight
A gene in one location affects the phenotypic expression at another location
Epistasis
What is an example of Epistasis?
Albinism in Rabbits
One gene affects an organism many ways
Pleiotropy
What is an example of Pleiotropy?
PKU
What is PKU
Mental retardation, reduced hair and skin pigmentation
What are the types of twins?
Fraternal, Identical, Conjoined, Half
Describe Fraternal Twins -
Look no more alike than normal brothers and sisters
Identical -
Either two boys or two girls, Look very much alike
Descrbibe conjoined twins -
the zygote starts to divide, but does not divide completely. The twins are attached
What is another name for conjoined twins?
Simase Twins
Describe Half Twins -
two zygotes combine - a different genotype is expressed in different parts of the body. Also can be an encapsulated twin - tumor with hair and teeth ect... inside
What are traits express only in the presence of sex hormones
Sex-linked traits
Give two examples of sex-linked traits
Color in birds, Beard growth in men, milk production in women
traits expressed only in the presence of sex hormones
Sex-limited traits
give an example of sex limited traits
Color in birds, beard growth in men, milk production in women
traits expressed in both sexes but differently
Sex-influenced
Give an example of Sex-influenced traits expressed in both sexes but differently
Baldness
used to determine If it is homozygous or heterozygous dominant
Test cross
What does the male determine
the sex of the child
What do the letters on the outside of a punnet square represent -
genotype of parents
What about on the inside of the square
possible genotypes of the children
Why do Himalayan Rabbits have black ears, nose and feet
Those are the parts of the body that lose heat the fastest
What colors to Artic Foxes turn
Brown to white
What is the term for Y being shorter than X chromosome
Hemizygois
On X but not Y
Color Blindness, Hemophilia
Disadvantage of Inbreeding
Keep Bad traits, recessive traits expressed