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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is molarity
moles of SOLUTE/ L
What is molality
moles/1000 g--weight of SOLVENT ONLY
What is density
grams per ml
1ml water = g
1
What is difference between drug and a poison
dose
What is a drug
as an agent intended for use in diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, cure, or prevention of disease
What is the most famous ancient writing on drugs and when
Ebers papyrus, 1550 BC
Who is Hippocrates
described hundreds of drugs and drug are GOOD (460 BC)
Who is Dioscrorides
1st century--set standards, proper storage, detecting contaminats
Who is Galen
(200 AD), wrote about numerous drugs--Galenic Parhamcy
When did pharmacy offically separate from medicine
1240 by Emperor Frederick II
Who is Paracelsus
transformed profession to chemisty from botnay..belived a cure for everything
When was morphine isolated from opium
1800's
What is USP and establish
1820's standanrds to insure drug quality
When was 1st Pure food and Drug act made
1900s combined USP and NF
1912 by Sherley Amendement
act prevent false claims of drugs
Why did the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 take place
b/c sulfa was the new wonder drug and was not soluble, and someone used antifreeze
What forms did the Fegeral Food Drug and Cosmetic act require
NDA (new drug applications
What did the Kefauver-Harris Drug act reuire
1962 drugs were both safe and effective
What is the application now required needed to test drugs in humans
IND (investigational new drug application)
When was synthetic chem born
1880
When did drugs become curative
1910 (arsphenamine-syphillis)
When and what is Dietary Supplement Heatlth and Education Act
1994--FDA approved drugs, and herbal dietary supplments
What does IND contain
contact info for sponser, drugs structural formula, reason for study, chemisty, approval from IRB
When is IND typically submitted
before Clinical Phase 1
How many clincial phases are there?
3`
How many people test in Phase I, and purpose
20-100 Healthy volunteers, determines safety and dosage
(1.5 years)
Type of dose in Phase I
typically low, (1/10), generally increases until side effect show
What is MEC
minimum effective concentrations
What is MTC
minimum toxic concentration
How many people test in Phase II and purpse
100-500, Patients, determines effectiveness, adn side effects
In what phase must final formulation exist
Phase II
Number of persons, and purpose in Phase III
1,000-5,000, confirms effectiveness, and montiors long term use (side effects)
(3.5)
What happens afer Phase III,
submit NDA to FDA
What happens after FDA approval
Phase IV
What happensin phase IV
continues to monitor the safety and effectiveness of drug after marketing
What is the orphan Drug Act of 1983
dacilitate development of drugs for treating diseases that affect less than 200,000 people
What does the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 allow
applications for generic copies of approved drugs through ANDA (abbreviated new drug application)
When can a ANDA be filed
after 17 years
What type of extension can FDA offer
up to a max of 5 yrs
What is only clincial testing required for an ANDA
only to assess the drugs bioavailability
Why do we need dosage forms
amt is too small to administer, or protect drug substance, hide bad taste
What is bioavailablity
the rate and extent to which an active drug is absorbed, and becomes available at the site of action
What is bioequvalence
comparision of bioavailablites of different fomulations and dosages
Can different dosage FORMS alter the bioavailabity even if DOSE is same
YES
Drugs are most frequently take by oral as it is safe and easy, however 3 disadvantages are
1. slow response (not good for ER
2. adsorption depends on stomach contents
3, durgs can be destroyed in stomach
What are capsules made of
gelatin or glyericn and.or alcohol
What are types of inacive ingreditents used commonly in tablets
fillers/diluents, binders, disintegrants, gliants/ colors

BCD FG
What are fillers/diluents
used to increase the bulik of material
What are binders
holds particles together
What are disintegrants
progmotes breakup of tablet into smaller particles
What are glidants/lubricants
enchance flow of dry materal for improved fillings
What are 4 types of bases used in ointmnets
Oleaginous (Petrolatum), Absorption, Water removable, Water soluble
How are transdermal deliveray systms usually adsorbed
stratum corneum by passive diffusion
What is composed of atomic nucleus (atomic #)
protrons and neutrons, atomic number is protens--electron are held in by protons
Why are noble gases not reative
s and p orbitals are full, and not reactive (do not want to share electrons
What is when atoms share electrons
covalent bond
What is strength of covalent bond dependent on
bond length --shorter bonds are stronger
What are ionic bonds
when atoms have extra electrons in outer sheel, will give up and become Cation, and other will accumulate extra electron and fill outer shell, and become anion
Example of ionic bond
NaCl (salts)
What is strength of ionic bond dependent on
electronegativites
What is dipole
postive and negative pulls on a molecule creates polarity--water polar becuase of uneven pulls
Another term for dipole-dipole interactions
van der Waals interactions-dependent on distance
What happens when nonpolar is introduced into water
hydrogen bonds are disrupted, in order to minimize disruption, the nonpolar molecules form an hydrophobic interaction
What is solvent
usually water--phase remains same after mixing, or in greater quantity
What does solubility of a soild in a ideal solution depend on
Temp, melting point, and molar heat of fusion
What is molar heat of fusion
the heat absorbed when the solid melts
Why in a ideal solution is heat of solution = heat of fusion
so solubility is not affected by the solvent
-logX2i
ideal solubility as mole fraction
To
melting point
T
temperature
R
gas constant
Does equation apply to temperatures above the mp or below mp
NO
3 Steps of Solubilization
What step uses Heat of Fusion
1. removal of molecule from solute phase--requires breaking of bonds
2. creation of cavity in solvent---breaking of bonds of solvent
3, solute enters the solvents cavity--interaction energy between them
What is the solubility of most electrolyes
Endothermic----when most salts are added to water, the solution absorbs heat--an increase in temp
In endothermic reactions..addition of heat will
increase solubility
Example of endothermic
when you add salt to water...not soluble..need heat to make soluble
What happens when solubility of electrolytes is exothermic
solubility decreases--does not drive reaction forward
When you added a non-polar fat into water what happens
disrupts hydrogen bonds, and nonpolar items are forced together--not b/c attracted..but b/c water wants to maintain its hydrogen bonds
What is a weak electroyle
something that doesnt completely dissolve (in water)
What 2 ways does alcohol affect solubility of a weak electrolyte?
1. increase solubility--by adjust solvents polarity
2.
What is an acid
donate an H+
What is a base
accepts an H+
What happens with strong acids in water
completely dissolves
What assumption can you make when acid dissolves 100 in water?
concentration remains same`
IS using a weak acid what must you do?
use dissociation constant at equilibrium
pH=
-log[H30+]
What is dissociation constant of water
Kw= [H30+] X [OH-]
What is Kw always equal to
10-14
an increase in H30+, will cause a decrease in OH-
Does temperature play a role in Kw
YES
What is Henderson-Hasselbalch
ph=pKA + log (salt)/(acid)
What is pKa
the PH at which 1/2 charged and 1/2 are not charged
what is a buffer
resists changes in pH
When does buffer have its maxmium capacity
pH=pKA, therefore Ka=H30+
How do you increase the buffer capacity without changing ph?
pH depends on ratio of salt/acid...keep ratio same but increase concentration
If an excess liquid or sold is added to a mixture of 2 immisicible liquids, what happens
it will distribute itself between the two phases-so each become saturated
What happens if concentration is insufficent to saturate 2 phases
distributes between phases at a ratio known K (partition coefficient)
What is phase 1, and phase 2
Phase 1 is organic,
Phase 2 is water
If K is < 1
or >1
<1 its water
>1 its organic
What determines how much drug is unionized
pk of drug, and pH of solution
What effect does water solubility have on K
decrease K, decrease crossing of membranes
What also plays an important role in permeability besides
partioning
molecular weight
What does Partition Co also determine
extraction of crude and biologoical drugs
What does transdermal delivery systems absorption depend on
drug conc, parition coefficent
time in contact with skin,
skin hydration
Advantages of transdermal delivery
Disadvantages
advoid GI degregation
non-invasive
prolonged effects/

disadvantage--only potent drugs can be used
What is Ksp
how much participate is formed?
What is Ksp
occurs at saturation,
1) Some of the solid does dissolve. Not very much, but enough.
2) The substance dissociates upon dissolving.
3) There exists an equilibrium between the undissolved solid and the solvated ions.
What is solubilty
how many moles dissolve in a liter
What is Ka
measure the strength of an acid, <1, weak acid
>1 strong acid
Do low conc of acid, produce more H30+, than dissassociation of water
YES
How would you increase the buffering capacity without changing the pH
keep salt/acid ratio same, just increase concentration
How are parenteral buffer usually formulated
low buffering capacity, and low volumes to prevent irritation
What is buffer capacity of blood, and can drugs exceed this
NO----bad... 0.039
What is partitioning
when an excess liquid or solid is added to a mixture of 2 immiscible liquids, it will distriburte between 2 phases so each are saturated, if conc is not enough to saturate, then it will distribute between both phases at a ratio
What type of molecules cross membrane
uncharged
What is ionized form for an acid
SALT, accepts H+,
extra Hs join and for HA
What is ionized from of base
acid is ionized