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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is required for a drug to work
it must reach the circulation, and then reach site of action
What are ionic interactions
occur between ion, Compelete transfer of electrons from less electronegative, to more electronegative atom
Ionic interactions related to solubility
water soluble
What is hydrogen bonds
when hydrogen is bond to a strongly electronegative atom, like 0, --difficult to break bonds
What are hydrophobic interations
interactions between hydrocarbons
How do hydrophobic interactions solvate one another
inducing dipoles that are electrostically attractive
What is Pi-Pi stacking
occurs between aromatic rings
What is required for drug to distribute to circulation
water solubility
What is required for drug to cross membrane
Lipid solubility
What are hydrocarbons
only carbon and hydrogen bonds, and lipid soluble
Properties of hydrocarbons
Cannot H-bonds, low boiling point, lipid soluble
What does bp refelct
strength of molecular interactions which must be broken
Benifits of adding a long fatty acid chain
prevents acid-catalyzed decomposition in teh stomach
What are alkenes
hydrocarbons with double-bonds
Properties of alkenes
low boiling pt, lipophilic, and are easily oxidized, b/c of double bond, more reactive then alkanes
What is sterioisomerism
same drugs, but differ in bond rototation, use only one active form
Properties of alkynes
lipid solubile, less reactive, most stable of alkanes and alkenes
What mechanism of action can alkenes and alkynes undergo
Properties of aromatic rings
lipid solulbe--like alkenes
What makes aromatic rings soluble
Hydrogen bonding groups
Why are aromatic rigns the central feaure of many drugs
b/c they interact with receptors via pi-pi stacking
Explain differance between phenol and cyclohexanol
Penol--benzene ring, most resonance strucutre, making more acidic, and more like to give up H+
What are 4 types of interactions between molcules
1. Hydrogen bonds
2. Pi-Pi stacking
3. Iionic interactions
4. Hydrophobic interactions
What do aromatic rings do to drugs
hold drugs in place,
How do alcohol interact with water
hydrogen bonds
How do alchols interacts with each other
hydrogen bonding--same as water
What is realtionship between oral adsoprtion and hydroxyl groups
The more hydroxyl groups(more polar), the less the drug is adsorbed--remember drugs needs to be NONPOLAR to be ADSORBED
Properties of Thiols
Sulfur to large, Hydrogen bond not very well
What do Thiols do in hydrocarbon chains
incduce dipole interactions, which increase lipid solubility
What do Thiols bind very tighly to
Metals such as Hg, and Zn
Do thiols have lower bp, then hydrogen bonding
Properties of amines
basic, and water soluble
Properies of neutral amine, and Charged amine
neutral amine--lipophilic, and quaternay form WATER soluble--b/c has + charge
What do aromatic rings do to bascity of amines
from electron delocatization, makes more acidic or more stable--MAKES NEUTRAL
What is normal pKA of amine
basic 9-10, and neutral form
What are amines readily adsopred? ph 8 or pH of 2
pH 8--uncharged-lipid solulbe, pH 3-charged--water soluble--not adsorpbed
Properties of carboxylic acids
very polar and water soluble
Why to carboxcillic acids have higher boiling points that Hydrogen bonds
forms 2 hydrogen bonds--or dimers
PKa values of carboxcillic acid
How are esters fromes
carboxcillic acis, and alcohols
What are lactones
cyclic esters
How are amides formed
carboxcillic acids and amines
What can amides be hydroylzed into and by
liver to forms caboxcillic acids
Solubility of drugs with Quaternary amine
EXTREMELY soluble, NO bioavailability
What are carbamates
cross bettwen esters and amidies
Do carbamates has intermediate activity
What makes something polar
What makes esters water less soluble than water and carboxcillic acids
it can't hydrogen bond with itself
How are imides formed
dicarboxcillic reacts with ammonina NH3+
Properties of imides
What are halogens
F, CL, Br, I
What do halogens do in terms of solubility
DECREASE solubility, more LIPOPHILIC, cannot interact with water
Properties of Ethers?
soluble, less solbule than alcohol or carboxcillics
Properties of Nitro
Great lipid solubility, b/c of its powerful electron withdrawing,
What does solubility depend on
What are sulfonamides
amides formed between sulfonic acid and amine
What items generally undergo ionic interactions
amines, and carboxylic acid
What are undering hydrogen bonding
What are undergoing hydrophobic
hydrocarbon chains