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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
where the electrons are; 2, 8, 8, 18
energy level
a subatomic particle in the nucleus with no charge
neutron
subatomic particle in the nucleus with a positive charge
proton
a subatomic particle with a negative charge that are responsible for chemical bonds and reactions
electron
inner part of the atom that contains protons and neutrons
nucleus
substance containing one type of matter
element
average mass of all known isotopes of an element
atomic mass
Al, O, H, abbreviation of an element
symbol
tells you the number of protons
atomic number
smallest part of an elemnt, can be alone or in groups
atom
smallest particle of a compound
molecule
substance of two or more elements that cannot be seperated
compound
anything that takes up space and has mass
matter
how easily a material will shatter upon impact
brittleness
the ability or something to stretch and return to its' original shape
elasticity
measures a solid's resistance to scratching
hardness
how easily a material can be pounded into thin sheets
malleability
describes relationship between mass and volume
density
gas loses energy and enters the liquid state
condensation
water turns into a gas
evaporation
the curve on a graduated cylinder
meniscus
inertia in an object, amount of matter an object has
mass
forced exerted = water displaced
Archimede's principle
the ability of an object to float
buoyancy
a material's resistance to flow
viscosity
the outermost electrons used in bonding and reactions
valence electrons
atom with an electric chrage
ion
attraction an atom has for a shared pair of electrons in a chemical bond
electronegativity
two non metals combine
covalent bond
a metal and a non metal combine
ionic bond
8 valence electrons per level to be stable
octet rule
a covalent compound with only two types of elements
binary compounds
ions with more than one type of atom
polyatomic
symbols and numbers of each element in a compung
molecular formula
a formula in the simplest form
emperical formula
have no fear of ice cold beer
diatomics
a large moleculoe with repeating smaller molecules called subunits or monomers
polymers
ions with one type of atom
monatomic ions
AX + B -> BX + A; one replaces another
single displacement
AB + CD -> AD + CB; produces two new compounds
double displacement
one compound breaks into two or more
decomposition reaction
two compounds combine to make one
addition reaection
reactant of O2 and product of H2O
combustion reaction
the same substance in a different form
physical change
color change, bubbling, fizzing, new substance made
chemical change
total mass of reactants = total mass of products
law of conservation of mass
on right, what you get
products
on the left, what you start out with
reactants
the reactant that is used first in a chemical reaction
limiting reactant
# of molecules in teh formal mass of a compound when the masses are in grams
Avogadro's number
6.02 X 10^23
one mole
add up AMUs of all atoms; compare masses of molecules
formula mass
dissolves solute, greatest amount
solvent
dissolved by solvent, smallest amount
solute
consists of solvent + solute; two or more substances that are homogenous at the molecular level
solution
way of visually distinguishing colloids from solutions
Tyndall effect
particles between 1.0 and 1000 nanometers; mixture
colloid
equal to one billionth of a meter
nanometer
solution of two or more metals
alloy
solute is dissolving at the same rate it's coming out
equilibrium
a mixture with large particles
suspension
maximum amount of solute has dissolve din a solvent
saturated
more solute has dissolved than normally possibly at a given temperature
supersaturated
separating a molecule into atoms and ions
dissociation
pH of seven = H+ and OH- ions the same
neutral
more H+ ions, 1-6
acids
more OH- ions, 8-14
bases
rain, gof or snow with pH lower than 5.6
acid precipiation
based on concentration of H+ ions
pH
chemicals do not form ions when dissolved into a solution
electrolytes
partially charged; emmited from nucleus during radioactive decay
alpha particle
time it takes for half the radioactice substance to undergo radioactivity
half life
photons emitted spontaneously by a radioactive substance
gamma rays
form of an element with different neutrons and mass numbers
isotopes
negatively charged; emmitted from nucleus during radioactive decay
beta particles
particles and energy emitted from radioactive substances
radiation
nuclear reaction where the nuclear splits; power plants
fission
nuclear reaction where nuclei from two atoms make a different atom
fusion
1/d^2... how far away you should be
inverse square law
e=mc^2
energy = mass times speed of light squared; einstein
homogenous
the same throughout
heterogenous
different throughout
heating, cooling, filtering, seperating, chromotography
physical means of seperating mixtures
keeps shape and size; molecules move but don't change position
solid
atoms are close but slip past eachother; no definite volume or shape
liquid
moves fast; no shape or volume at all
gas
in the universe, stars, most powerful
plasma
pushing water out of the way
displacement
floating
positively buoyant
sinking
negatively buoyant
if low viscosity, then
it flows easily
as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by that fluid
decreases
one up, one down
inverse relationship
As the temperasture increases, the volume of the gas increases.
Charles Law
gases and liquid
fluid
gold foil; discovered that alpha particles have a positive charge, and that nucleus is positively charged
Rutherford
-atoms are tiny hard spheres
-atoms of elements join to form compounds
John Dalton's ATOMIC THEORY
discovered the neutron
James Chadwick
said that electrons behave like waves on a string
de Broglie
said electrons have negative charge, and electrons are in every atom
JJ Thompson
made the periodic table
mendeleev
1/2 of mass of a carbon atom
AMU
s, p, d, f
electron orbitals