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143 Cards in this Set

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Inquiry and discovery science
asking questions to find answers
control group
the group that lacks the variable
experimental group
the group that contains the variable
constants
things that remain the same throughout the experiment
hypothesis
a testable educated guess about what is going to happen...has 3 parts....assumption, prediction, condition
Theory
a hypothesis that has been proven true many times...it can be changed, modified, or proven wrong
Variable
somethign you can change in an experiment
Observation
using your five senses to gather information
dependent variable
what is being measured
independent variable
how the groups are differnet
quantitative Data
data in the form of numbers or exact measurments
Ex: it is 56 degrees outside
Qualitative Data
data in the form of observations using the 5 senses
Ex: the apple is large, or the apple is red
what is the correct form to write a hypothesis?
if the _______affects______then _________will ___________compared to ______ with all other conditions being the same.
what is the difference between a hypothesis, a theory, and a law?
hypothesis: something that is being tested
theory: has been tested many times and proven true
law: occurs all the time and is agreed upon by everyone
what are the basic characteristics of inquiry science?
use observation to collect data to answer a question
What are the levels of life?
biosphere > ecosystem > community > organism > cell
atom(element)
pure substance that cannot be broken down any farther(simplist form of matter)
compund
two or more elements in a fixed ratio
isotope
different number of neutrons in the same type of atom
Covalent bonding
when two or more atoms bond by sharing electrons
ionic bonding
when two or more atoms bond by transferring electrons (gaining/losing)
hydrogen bonding
type of covalent bonding that involves water
protons
positive charged subatomic particles located inside the nucleus
neutrons
nuetral charged subatomic particles located inside the nucleus
electron
negatively charged subatomic particles that orbit around the nucleus in the electron cloud
Atomic #
tells you where on the periodic table the element is located and the number of protons in each atom
molecules
to or more atoms joined together in a compound
Ion
when an atom gains or loosses electrons it becomes an ion
cation
when an atom looses electrons and becomes positively charged
anion
when an atoms gains electrons and becomes negatively charged
reactants
on the left side of the equation. what is used to make the products
products
on the right side of the equation. what is produced
polar
has a charge
Ex: water the hydrogen is slightly positive charge
non polar
atom has no charge
adhesion
attraction between unlike molecules
cohesion
when the same type of molecule sticks together
PH scale
measures the level of acidity...goes from 0-14....7 is neutral
Acid
anywhere on the Ph scale from 0-6.999999999...the lower the number the stronger the acid
Base
anywhere ont he Ph scale between 7.0000001 and 14....the higher the number the stronger the base
neutral
a 7 on the Ph scale
Solute
the substance being dissolved
Ex: kool-aid
Solvent
What the substance is being dissolved in
Ex: water
Solution
uniform mixture that is the same without
Aqueous solution
a solution in which water in the solvent
valence electrons
the electrons on the outer ring
How do u tell the # of protons, electrons, and neutrons in an atom?
protons-the atomic #
electrons-same as protons
neutrons-the mass # minus the atomic number
Organic molecule
contains carbon(carbs and protiens)
inorganic molecule
they lack carbon(water and oxygen)
carbohydrate
provide feul and energy and serve as building materials...sugars.
Glucose
simple sugar (C6H12O6)...ratio of 1 to 2 to 1
Monosaccharides
smallest type of carb..small sugars such as glucose
Disaccharides
2 monosaccharides(simple sugars)
Polysaccharides
large chain of sugars
Ex: starch, glycogen, & cellulose(in plants)
Monomers
small, simple units of molecules
Polymers
complex chains of many monomers
Amino Acids
the monomers of protiens
polypeptides
several amino acids linked together
proteins
large molecules that
~serve as building material
~carry out chemical reactions
~pump small molecules
~aid in cell defence
they are polymers made of several polypeptides
Enzymes
specific type of protien that speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy..classified as catalysts
catalyst
something that speeds up reactions
list the types of protiens from smallest to largest
amino acids > polypeptides > protiens
What affects the affectiveness of enzymes in a reaction
Ph and temperature
cell
smallest unit of matter and life
what are the three parts to the cell theory
~all living things are made of cells
~ cells are the basic unit of structure and function
~all cells come from other cells
prokaryotic
smaller, less complicated, older, unicellular, bacteria
Eukaryotic
larger, multicellular, animals and plants
unicellular
prokaryotic simple, one cell
Multicellular
many cells working together
organelle
a small membrane bound structure that performs a specific function within the cell
nucleus
the control center for the cell..contains DNA inside the nucleolus
ribosome
produce the protiens
cell membrane
the outer boundary of the cell...controls what enters and exits
cell wall
outside the cell membrane...privides support....only in plant cells
cytoplasm
the gel like substance between the cell membrane and the nuclues containing the other organelles
Chloroplasts
in plant cells that perform photosynthesis
ctyoskeleton
helps with transportation and internal support
mitochondria
causes cellular respiration
ATP
energy
adenosine triphosphate
Rough ER
contains ribosomes..
Lysosomes
break down materials...contain digestive enzymes
vesicle
transports large materials in the cell
phosphylipids
make up the phospholipid bilayer the heads face the outside and the tails face the inside
osmosis
how water enters and exits the cell...goes from high to low..no energy needed
Diffusion
transport of small nonpolar materials...goes from high to low....no energy
facilitated diffusion
diffusion through the protiens...high to low...no energy.....
ex: glucose
Active transport
molecules crossing the membrane... uses energy...low to high
ex: potassium ions
Endocytosis
going in throuhg the vesicles
Exocytosis
going out of the cell through vesicles
Hypertonic
water exits the cell, cell shrivels
Hypotonic
water comes in the cell and the cell expands or explodes
Equilibrium
both sides of the membrane have equal ration of solute
Homeostasis
internal functioning of an organsim is at equaliblrium
What organelles are used in protein prduction?
DNA, Rough ER, risbosomes, vesicle, golgi bodies, cell membrane
Coordinated unit
organelles working together to allow the cell to work correctly
Cellular respiration
chemical process that converts energy into Co2 and ATP
Glycolysis
first stage of cellular respiration
Krebs Cycle
2nd cycle in celllar respiration...releases energy
ETC
carries eletrons and releases energy during cellular respiration
Cristae
Cristae - etc occurs (curvy thing in mitochondria
Matrix
gel inside mitochorndira (krebs cycle)
Aerobic
requires oxygen, 38 ATP, (Gly, Krebs, ETC)
Anaerobic
doesn't require oxygen, 2 ATP, fermentation
Autotroph
producer, makes food from sun
Heterotroph
consumer, eats food
Reactants and products of the 3 stages
Glycolisis- glucose= 2 pyruvic acid and 2 ATP
Krebs- pyruvic acid= 4CO2 +2 ATP
ETC= hydrogen ions+oxygen= water + 34 ATP
Cellular Respiration Equation
oxygen+glucose=water+CO2+38 ATP

6O2+C6H12O6=6CO2+6H2O+38ATP
What does the human body do during anaerobic respiration?
produces alot of lactic acid in the muscle that can be removed by oxygen
Chlorophyl
the pigment that traps light energy used in phtosynthesis
thylakoid
disc shaped structures that trap light and contain chlorophyll
granum
stacks of thylakoids
photosynthesis
process of changing light energy into chemical energy to be used in CR to feed autotrophs.
Stroma
the liquid portion of the chloroplats that contain ensyzmes
Light reaction
light + water = nadph + ATP + oxygen
Dark Reaction
nadph + ATP + CO2 = glucose
how does respiration and photosynthesis work together?
they use eachother's products as their reactants
photosynthesis equation
water + CO2 + light= glucose + oxygen
meosis
produces haploids sex cells
cell plate
turns into cell wall
number of chromosomes in prophase equals _____
last number of chromosomes produced in each cell.
______ acts as checkpoints
proteins
Cromatin
strands of DNA during interphase
Sister Chromatids
a strand of DNA during mitosis
Centromere
the the point that connects the cromatid
Spindle Fibers
microtubules that help chromosomes split apart in cell division.
haploid
There is one where the cromatid makes a line because there is only one strand. 1n prokaryotic cells.
diploid
When there are two cromatid joined together. 2n in eukarytokic cells.
cell cycle
sequence of events from the production of a eukaryotic cell to the time the cell itself reproduces.
prophase
chromatids form chromosomes, the nuclear membrane starts to disappear, spindle fibers start to form
metaphase
chromosomes line up at the equator of the nucleus, spindle fibers connect to each centromere
Anaphase
chromosomes split and are pulled toward the poles. Haploid, equal number of cromatids and chromosomes
Telophase
nuclear membrane reforms, equal number of chromosomes and cromatids in each new cell, haploid
Cytokinesis
two completely separate cells, no longer connected.
G1
cell grows in size first and longest step in interphase
S
(synthesis), the DNA replication occurs, cromatin double
G2
last stage in interphase, cromatin begin to pair up, cell prepares to divide
how do prokaryotes reproduce?
binary fission, the cell replicates dna then splits
How do eukaryotes reproduce?
they go through the cell cycle:
interphase(g1,s,g2), mitosis,then cytokenisis
What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?
sexual- when is two parents each give genetic information to the new cell.
asexual- one parent an exact copy
What is the importance of each step in the cell cycle?
G1-cell grows, 1 cromatin
S- cromatin double
G2- cromatin pair up
propase- make an X
metaphase- cromosomes align in the middle
anaphase-chromosomes split
telophase- cells start to separate
cytokinesis- two completely spearate cells
What are the parts of interphase?
G1- cell grows
S-cromatin double
G2- cromatin pair up
How many chromosomes in each somatic cell?
23 pair, 46 chromosomes
Stomatic cell
skin cells
What are the characteristics of cancer
it reproduces asexually, it is characterized as a disease from uncontrolled cell division