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93 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Good system of measurement
1. standard- system everyone agrees

2. precision- degree of refinement

3. accuracy- tool or instrument confirms to a standard
3 rules
metric system
km, hm, dam, basic unit, dm, cm, mm
king henry drank down chocolate milk
scientific method
1. Problem
2. Research
3. Hypothesis- educated guess or statement
4. Experiment- test hypothesis
- Control- can’t control, independent (the thing that is being changed)
- Variable- the thing that is being changed, dependent (changes as result of inde. variable)
5. Data/ Observation- a table and a graph included
6. Analyze- what went wrong, why did it worked, what could be changed
7. Conclusion, yes or no to hypothesis specific data for support
steps of the scientific method
Law
Law- proven and accepted as true
law of gravity
Theory
Theory- time tested predictable, explanation of event
big bang theory
Fact
Fact- Something proved true or false
i am 5'3
Lab Rules
no fooling around
no eating/drinking
wear safety goggles
don't clean up any spills or breaks
volume
amount of space an object takes up
matter
substance that makes up all objects
mass, unit?
the amount of matter an object has

grams
density
m/v how close matter is packed together in an object
General Properties of Matter
Mass, Volume, Density, and Weight
Inertia? Newton's Law of Inertia?
resistance to changes in motion

Objects in motion will stay in motion. Stationary objects will stay motionless untill acted upon by an outside force.
4 stages of matter? explain each one.
solid- tightly packed, hardly any movement of molecules, definate shape and definate volume

liquid- particles more spread out, faster motion, no definate volume

gases- particles spread out as far as they can go and very fast moving
no shape no volume

plasma- very high energy, found in stars
velocity
resistence to flow
science
an organized knowledge about the universe that is used to make our lives better
Law of conservation of matter
matter can not be created and can not be destroyed
chemical change
take matter and change it into something new
physical change
change matter but no new substances are formed
types of mixtures
hetrogeneous and homogeneous
hetrogeneous
parts are large
easy to seperate
easy to see
"least mixed"
homogeneous
parts are small
not easy to seperate
not easy to see
types of homogeneous mixtures
solution and colliod
solution
one substance that is dissolved into another substance
alloy

solute
solvent
solution of metals

solute- thing being dissolved
solvent- thing that is doing hte dissolving
colliod
particles suspended but not dissolved, cloudy, scattered
pure substance
made up of one substance
element
smallest part of a pure substance
atom
smallest part of an element you can have and still have the properties of the element
compound
two or more things combined chemically
rules of compounds
1. amounts do matter

2.can be seperated

3. each part does not retian its own properties
molecule
smallest part of a compound that still retains its properties
all compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds


true/false
true
chemical symbols
makes it easier to write elements
chemical formula

3H2O
3- coefficient tells you the number of the molecules

H- hydrogen

2-subscript tells you the number of attoms for the element

O- oxygen
balanced equation
you need the same amount of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation
rules for balancing equations
can not add or take away subscript

can add coefficients

can't spilt a compound
three types of reactions
synthesis, decompostion, replacement
synthesis reaction
combining things to form new things
decompostion reaction
single thing broken
replacement reation
one element replaces another
reation rate
how fast to react
factors that effect reaction rate
temperature

concentration

surface area
exothermic reaction
gives off heat
endothermic reation
heat is being absorbed
Charle's Law
increase the temp of gas
increase the volume of the gas
Boyle's Law
increase pressure on the gas
decrease the volume of the gas
Indirect evidence
information obtained about an object without actully seeing it or touching
Democritus
atom is the smallest piece of matter and made of the same material
an atom is always moving
Dalton
gases combine as if made of tiny indiviual particles

elements composed of atoms
Thomson
atom made up of particles
negatively charged particles had to include positively charged particles


plum pudding
negatively charged pudding
positively charged plums scattered in the pudding
Rutherford
positive repels positive
nucleus is the center of the atom (positively charged)
negatively charged particles around the nucleus
Bohr Model
electrons move in a definate orbit around the nucleus

energy levels are located in distances from the nucleus
Wave Model
electrons do not move in a definate path
location of the electron can be decided on how much energy it has
Subatomic Particles
particles are smaller than hte atom itself
nucleus
the center of the atom
atoms are not alive

true/false
true
most of the mass of the atom located in the nucleus


true/false
true
Protons
positively charged particles
the number of neutrons determines what the element is

true/false
false, the number of protons
neutrons
no charge
atomic mass unit
amu
electrons
negatively charged particles
electrons in the first level have the most energy
false
Atomic Number
# of protons
Mass #
sum of p+ and neutrons
Electricity
movement of electrons
Static Electricity
transfer of electrons from one place ot another
current
vibration of electrons within a wire
electromagnetic force
opposites attract
like repel
this electrons from colliding
Strong Force
strong enough to overcome electromagnetic force
keeps protons together
limited range
weak force
responsible for radioactive decay
Gravity
force of attention between everything
Happy Atoms
to make happy atoms the atoms have to have complete outer energy levels
energy levels
1- 2 electrons
2- 8
4- 18
3 ways to make Atoms happy
share electrons

take electrons

give up electrons
Covalent Bond
atoms join together by sharing electrons
Valence Electrons
the elctrons in the outer level
Ionic Bond
joining of atoms by gaining or losing electrons
ion
charged particle
cation
positive particle
anion
negative particle
Energy
the ability to do work
in order for work to be done the object has to
move
force is a
push or a pull
all matter has potienal energy because
all matter has the ability to do work
Indicator
a substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base
acid
sour taste
corrosive
sontain hydrogen and nonmetals
produce hydronium ions when placed in water
proton donors
Bases
breaks down greases and oils
bitter taste
neutralizes acids
slippery
contains hydrogen oxygen and a metal
produces hydroxide ions in water
proton accepters
Name A Binary Acid
Prefix Hydro + root of nonmetal + ic

ex. Hydro + chlor +ic

Hydrochloric Acid
Name A Ternary Acid
root of nonmetal + ic

Sulfur + ic Acid

Nitr + ic Acid
Name a Base
name of metal + hydroxide

MgOH = Magnesium Hydroxide
pH Scale
shows the strength of acids and bases

going inward gets weaker