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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Heat transfer by convection is normally in
fluids(both gases and liquids)
Airplane flight is best illustrated by
Bernoulli's Principle
A bubble of air released from the bottom of the lake
becomes larger as it rises
Boyle's Law P1V1=P2V2
Aa bubble rises pressure decreases and volume increases
Conduction involves heat transfer by
direct contact
If an object is floating, the bouyant force is equal to
the weight of the object
When you touch a cold piece of ice w/ your finger energy flows
from your finger to the ice
THe path of a baseball curves when thrown w/ a spin principally because
air pressure is reduced over the curved top surface
A aircraft that weighs 1-ton hovers in the air. The bouyant force acting on it is
1 ton (floating)
Bouyant force is equal to
the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
What is the pressure if a 10N force is applied over a 2 square meter area?
5 P=F/A P= 10N/2m^2=5
What is density defined as?
Mass/Volume
Heat can be transferred by the process of
conduction, radiation, convection
Heat energy travels from an object w/ a
higher temp. to an object w/ a lower temp.
If a fluids flow from a wide pipe into a small pipe the fluid flows ..
faster
If an object is submerged in fluid, where is the pressure on the object greater?
on the bottom surface of the object
The pressure on a liquid depends on liquid
depth and density
What causes atmospheric pressure, in general
The weight of the atmosphere acting on us
Wind blowing over the top of the hill
decreases atmospheroc pressure there
As a diver deeper in the ocean, he or she will experience
greater pressure
Theraml Energy is
potential and kinetic energy
Archimede's Principle applies to
fluids
What is pressure defined as?
Force/Area
A theory is
a synthesis of a large body of well-tested knowledge
An educated guess is a
hypothesis
Science, art, religion do not contradict one another because
all three have dif. domains
A truly educated person is knowledgeable about
religion, science, and the arts
One object has twice as much mass as another object, it also has twice as much
inertia
Compared w/ the mass of a certian object on Earth, the mass of the same object on the Moon is
the same
What is mechanical equalibrium?
object is at rest or moving at constant nonzero velocity
The scientist to first introduce the concept of inertia was
Galileo
Lobsters live at the bottom of the ocean. The density of a lobster is
greater than the density of seawater
When gas in a container is squeezed to half its volume its density
doubles
An umbrella tends to move upwards on a windy day principally because
air gets trapped under the umbrella, warms, rises
Metals are both heat good conducters and also good electrical conductors because of the
looseness of outer electrons in metal atoms
A piece of platinum has a mass of 2kg. Would it weigh more on Jupiter or Earth?
Jupiter
What is the impulse-momentum relationships?
Impulse is equal to the change in momentum
What happens to the kinetic energy of the object if the velocity is doubled?
The KE is multiplied by 4
Convection involves heat transfer by
the motion of fluids
Lift on an airplane is best illustrated by
Bernoulli's principle
Air moving over the top of a convertible
decreases atmospheric pressure there, letting the roof 'poof up
Heat can be transferred by
conduction, convection, and radiation
Newtons First Law of Motion
an object at rest stays at rest unless acted on by a force an object in motion stays in motion unless acted on by an outside force
Newtons Second Law of Motion
A=F/m
Newton's Third Law of Motion
Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
If a fluid flows from a wide pipe into a small pipe
the fluid flows faster
If the frequency of a certain wave is 10 Hz, its period is
1/10= .1 s
The source of all electromagnetic waves is
vibrating charges
Interference is a property of
sound waves, light waves, and water waves
Sound waves are dif. than other waves because
it is a longitudinal wave
Electromagnetic waves consist of
vibrating electric and magnetic fields
If an electron vibrates up and down 1000 times each second, it generates an electromagnetic having a frequency of
1000 Hz
Electromagnetic waves can travel through a vacuum. T or F
True
A floating leaf oscillates up and down 2 complete in 1s as a water wave passes by. The wavelength is 10m. What is the wave's speed?
20 m/s
How many vibrations per second are associated w/ a 101-MHz radio wave?
101,000,000
When the speed of sound near the ground is greater than higher in the air, sound tends to be bent
upward
A wave having a freq. of 1000 Hz vibrates at
1000 cycles per second
Refraction of sound can occur in
both air and water
The natural freq. of an object depends on its
size, shape and elasticity
The sound source of high frequency emits a high
pitch
The speed of a sound wave in air depends on
air temp.
Sound travels faster in
steel
The phenomenon of beats results from sound
interference
The source of all sounds is something that is
vibrating
The explanation for refraction must involve a change in
speed
Sound travels faster in air if the air is
warm
Compressions and rarefactions are characteristic of
longitudinal waves
Sound waves can interfere with one another so that no sound result T or F
True
Sound will be louder if a struck tuning fork is held
w/ its base against a table top
Reverberation is actually a case of sound
undergoing multiple reflections
The speed of sound wave does not depend on
wavelength, source, or frequency
A sound wave is a
longitudinal wave
Sound waves can not travel in a
vacuum
The range of human hearing is from about
20Hz-20,000 Hz
Atoms heavier than hydrogen were made by
nuclear fusion
Atoms consist of
a nucleus and electron cloud
An element is made of
one type of atom only
The elements in the periodic table are grouped together as
metallic, nonmetallic, or metalliod
Metals have properties such as
they are good conductors of heat and electricity
Nonmetals have properties such as
they are not ductile
Metalloids are
good conductors of electricity
The most common silicate minerals are
quartz and feldspar
The first minerals to melt those with
lowest melting point
Metamorphism caused by the close proximity of a magma source is called
contact metamorphism
The most common outpouring of lava on the surface occurs as
fissure eruptions
The mantle is composed of
plastic-like iron rich silicate rocks
In a divergent plate boundary
crustal plates are pulled apart
Earthquakes and volcanoes tend to occur
along the boundaries of lithospheric plates
In a transform-fault plate boundary
crustal plates slide past each other
Convergent boundaries are areas of
plate collisions
Earthquake s-waves
are longitudinal vibrations similar to sound waves
The outer core of the earth
flows fast enough to power the earth's magnetic field
Mineral streak
the color of the powdered form of the mineral
Mineral cleavage
the tendency of a mineral to spit along planes of weakness
Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed from
crystallization of minerals from a water solution
Rocks formed by cooling from a magma are
igneous rocks
A mineral ore is
rich in valuable metals that can be mined for profit
Rocks formed by a change in temp. and/or pressure in the environment of older rock are
metamorphic rocks
What are the 5 mineral groups?
silicates, carbonates, oxides, sulfides, sulfates
Hydrothermal minerals form from
hot underground water in cracks of rock
Luster is the way a mineral
reflects light
Birefringence is
the splitting of light into 2 rays- so you see double
Is earth a geologically active planet?
Yes
Minerals crystal from
magma solutions and water solutions
What are the 3 types of magma?
basaltic, granitic, andesitic
Which type of volcano has explosive eruptions?
composite cone
Intrusive igneous rocks form from
plutons
Mechanical Weathering
physical breakdown of older rocks into smaller pieces
What is lithification?
conversion of sediments into rock
What is erosion?
transport of sediments by water, wind or ice
What is sedimentation?
horizontal layering of sediments
What is subduction?
when one lithospheric plate sinks beneath another
Moh's scale is defined on the basis of minerals that have different
hardnesses
How do mountains form?
Mountains are the result of plate convergence-plates coming together
The earth's lithosphere consists of
the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle
What drives the movement of the lithospheric plates?
convection in the asthenosphere
Volcanic arcs and island arcs are generated at which type of lithospheric plate boundary?
convergent plate boundary
Earth's structure is
inner core, outer core, mantle, crust