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### 117 Cards in this Set

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 Heat transfer by convection is normally in fluids(both gases and liquids) Airplane flight is best illustrated by Bernoulli's Principle A bubble of air released from the bottom of the lake becomes larger as it rises Boyle's Law P1V1=P2V2 Aa bubble rises pressure decreases and volume increases Conduction involves heat transfer by direct contact If an object is floating, the bouyant force is equal to the weight of the object When you touch a cold piece of ice w/ your finger energy flows from your finger to the ice THe path of a baseball curves when thrown w/ a spin principally because air pressure is reduced over the curved top surface A aircraft that weighs 1-ton hovers in the air. The bouyant force acting on it is 1 ton (floating) Bouyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object What is the pressure if a 10N force is applied over a 2 square meter area? 5 P=F/A P= 10N/2m^2=5 What is density defined as? Mass/Volume Heat can be transferred by the process of conduction, radiation, convection Heat energy travels from an object w/ a higher temp. to an object w/ a lower temp. If a fluids flow from a wide pipe into a small pipe the fluid flows .. faster If an object is submerged in fluid, where is the pressure on the object greater? on the bottom surface of the object The pressure on a liquid depends on liquid depth and density What causes atmospheric pressure, in general The weight of the atmosphere acting on us Wind blowing over the top of the hill decreases atmospheroc pressure there As a diver deeper in the ocean, he or she will experience greater pressure Theraml Energy is potential and kinetic energy Archimede's Principle applies to fluids What is pressure defined as? Force/Area A theory is a synthesis of a large body of well-tested knowledge An educated guess is a hypothesis Science, art, religion do not contradict one another because all three have dif. domains A truly educated person is knowledgeable about religion, science, and the arts One object has twice as much mass as another object, it also has twice as much inertia Compared w/ the mass of a certian object on Earth, the mass of the same object on the Moon is the same What is mechanical equalibrium? object is at rest or moving at constant nonzero velocity The scientist to first introduce the concept of inertia was Galileo Lobsters live at the bottom of the ocean. The density of a lobster is greater than the density of seawater When gas in a container is squeezed to half its volume its density doubles An umbrella tends to move upwards on a windy day principally because air gets trapped under the umbrella, warms, rises Metals are both heat good conducters and also good electrical conductors because of the looseness of outer electrons in metal atoms A piece of platinum has a mass of 2kg. Would it weigh more on Jupiter or Earth? Jupiter What is the impulse-momentum relationships? Impulse is equal to the change in momentum What happens to the kinetic energy of the object if the velocity is doubled? The KE is multiplied by 4 Convection involves heat transfer by the motion of fluids Lift on an airplane is best illustrated by Bernoulli's principle Air moving over the top of a convertible decreases atmospheric pressure there, letting the roof 'poof up Heat can be transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation Newtons First Law of Motion an object at rest stays at rest unless acted on by a force an object in motion stays in motion unless acted on by an outside force Newtons Second Law of Motion A=F/m Newton's Third Law of Motion Every action has an equal and opposite reaction If a fluid flows from a wide pipe into a small pipe the fluid flows faster If the frequency of a certain wave is 10 Hz, its period is 1/10= .1 s The source of all electromagnetic waves is vibrating charges Interference is a property of sound waves, light waves, and water waves Sound waves are dif. than other waves because it is a longitudinal wave Electromagnetic waves consist of vibrating electric and magnetic fields If an electron vibrates up and down 1000 times each second, it generates an electromagnetic having a frequency of 1000 Hz Electromagnetic waves can travel through a vacuum. T or F True A floating leaf oscillates up and down 2 complete in 1s as a water wave passes by. The wavelength is 10m. What is the wave's speed? 20 m/s How many vibrations per second are associated w/ a 101-MHz radio wave? 101,000,000 When the speed of sound near the ground is greater than higher in the air, sound tends to be bent upward A wave having a freq. of 1000 Hz vibrates at 1000 cycles per second Refraction of sound can occur in both air and water The natural freq. of an object depends on its size, shape and elasticity The sound source of high frequency emits a high pitch The speed of a sound wave in air depends on air temp. Sound travels faster in steel The phenomenon of beats results from sound interference The source of all sounds is something that is vibrating The explanation for refraction must involve a change in speed Sound travels faster in air if the air is warm Compressions and rarefactions are characteristic of longitudinal waves Sound waves can interfere with one another so that no sound result T or F True Sound will be louder if a struck tuning fork is held w/ its base against a table top Reverberation is actually a case of sound undergoing multiple reflections The speed of sound wave does not depend on wavelength, source, or frequency A sound wave is a longitudinal wave Sound waves can not travel in a vacuum The range of human hearing is from about 20Hz-20,000 Hz Atoms heavier than hydrogen were made by nuclear fusion Atoms consist of a nucleus and electron cloud An element is made of one type of atom only The elements in the periodic table are grouped together as metallic, nonmetallic, or metalliod Metals have properties such as they are good conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals have properties such as they are not ductile Metalloids are good conductors of electricity The most common silicate minerals are quartz and feldspar The first minerals to melt those with lowest melting point Metamorphism caused by the close proximity of a magma source is called contact metamorphism The most common outpouring of lava on the surface occurs as fissure eruptions The mantle is composed of plastic-like iron rich silicate rocks In a divergent plate boundary crustal plates are pulled apart Earthquakes and volcanoes tend to occur along the boundaries of lithospheric plates In a transform-fault plate boundary crustal plates slide past each other Convergent boundaries are areas of plate collisions Earthquake s-waves are longitudinal vibrations similar to sound waves The outer core of the earth flows fast enough to power the earth's magnetic field Mineral streak the color of the powdered form of the mineral Mineral cleavage the tendency of a mineral to spit along planes of weakness Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed from crystallization of minerals from a water solution Rocks formed by cooling from a magma are igneous rocks A mineral ore is rich in valuable metals that can be mined for profit Rocks formed by a change in temp. and/or pressure in the environment of older rock are metamorphic rocks What are the 5 mineral groups? silicates, carbonates, oxides, sulfides, sulfates Hydrothermal minerals form from hot underground water in cracks of rock Luster is the way a mineral reflects light Birefringence is the splitting of light into 2 rays- so you see double Is earth a geologically active planet? Yes Minerals crystal from magma solutions and water solutions What are the 3 types of magma? basaltic, granitic, andesitic Which type of volcano has explosive eruptions? composite cone Intrusive igneous rocks form from plutons Mechanical Weathering physical breakdown of older rocks into smaller pieces What is lithification? conversion of sediments into rock What is erosion? transport of sediments by water, wind or ice What is sedimentation? horizontal layering of sediments What is subduction? when one lithospheric plate sinks beneath another Moh's scale is defined on the basis of minerals that have different hardnesses How do mountains form? Mountains are the result of plate convergence-plates coming together The earth's lithosphere consists of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle What drives the movement of the lithospheric plates? convection in the asthenosphere Volcanic arcs and island arcs are generated at which type of lithospheric plate boundary? convergent plate boundary Earth's structure is inner core, outer core, mantle, crust