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116 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
chemistry
the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes
element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into an other substances by chemical or physical means
chemical bond
a force of attraction between two atoms
weight
a measure of the force of gravity on you
mass
the measurement of the amount of matter in the object
volume
the amount of space that matter occupies
energy
the ability to do work or cause change
law of conservation of mass
"matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical change"
The Formula to calculate density
mass divided by volume
3 particles found in an atom
proton, neutron, and electron.
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus
nucleus
the very small center core of an atom
Dimitri Mendeleev
he discovered a set of patterns that apply to all the elements. he arranged the elements in order from increasing atomic mass.
protons
have a positive electric charge
neutrons
have no charge
electrons
have a negative electric charge
smelting
when an ore is melted to separate the useful metal from otehr elements in the ore
igneous rock
a rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock
sedimentary rock
forms in layers below the surface. forms when particles of other rocks or remains of plants/animals are pressed together.
metamorphic rock
forms when existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
3 types of mines
open pit, shaft, strip
granite
a light colored, coarse grained igneous rock, which is made up from quartz and feldspar.
porphyry
a certain texture of a rock. has large crystals surrounded by smaller ones.
sediment
small solid pieces of matierial that form from rocks or living things.
erosion
the destructive process in which water or wind loosens and carries away fragments of rocks
coral
a structure formed when skeletons of coral animals grow together.
cells
the basic unit of structure in a living thing
homeostasis
that process in which an organism's internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment
stress
the reaction of your body to potentially threatening situations
hinge joint
in your knee and elbow
ball and socket joint
in your hip and shoulder
pivot joint
in your neck
gliding joint
in your wrists and anklea
marrow
a soft connective tissue that fills the internal places in a bone
osteoporosis
a condition in the body in which the bones in the body become weak and break easily
fracture
a break in a bone
dislocation
when an end of a bone pops out of its joint
sprain
when two ligaments are streatched too far and tear in places
MRI
stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. a method for taking clear images of the bones and soft tissue of the body
arthritis
a disease of the joints that makes movements painful
epidermis
outer layer of the skin. doesnt have any nerves or blood vessels
dermis
inner layer of the skin. this area contains nerves and blood vessels
nutrients
the substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs
cholesterol
a waxy fatlike substance found in only anuimal products
vitamins
act as a helper molecule in a variety of chemical reactions in the body
minerals
nutrients that are not made by living things
water
most important nutrient because it is needed for alll body processes and makes up most of the body's fluids
digestion
the process by which your body breaks down food inot small nutrient molecules. (two types: mechanical amd chemical)
Saliva
the fluid released when you mouth waters
esophagus
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
mucus
a thick slipepry substance produced by the body
small intestine
an organ in which almost all chemical digestion and absorption occurs. it is 19 feet long, lined with villi, attached to the stomach, and recieves bile and enzymes from other organs.
liver
the largest organ in the body and the role is to produce bile
bile
a substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles.
gallbladder
the organ that stores bile
large intestine
the last section of the digestive system. it contatins bacteria that feed on the matierial passing through. in this organ the water is absorbed into the bloodstream.
respiration
the process in which oxygen and glucose undergo a complex series of chemical reactions in cells
breathing
the movement of air in and out of the lungs.
path of air
through nose, pharynx (throat), trachea, and bronchi
diaphragm
a large dome shaped muscle that plays an important role in breathing
pharynx
both the nose and the mouth are connected to the pharynx, or throat, and it is a passageway for food and air, making it part of the digestive system and respiratory system.
trachea
(windpipe) lined with cilia and mucus. only air enters.
lungs
the main part of the respiratory system
emphysema
destroys lung tissue and causes breathing difficulties. the damage is permanent even if a person stops smoking
bronchitis
an irritation of the breathing passages in shich the small passages become narrower and may be clogged.
lung cancer
cancerous growths or tumors take away space in the lungs that are used for gas exchange
tar
dark, sticky substance that forms when tobacco burns. it causes cilia to clump together which decreases their ability to prevent harmful materials from entering the lungs.
carbon monoxide
colorless odorless gas that bonds with hemoglobin which would normally ake the place of oxygen
nicotine
a timulant drug; makes the heart beat faster; increases blood pressure; produces addiction
passive smoking
people inhale the smoke from other people. it contains the same harmful chemicals that smokers inhale. it leads to bronchitis and asthma
organs of excretion
kidneys lungs skin and liver
brain
controls most of the body's functions
nerve
a bundle of nerves
sensory neuron
picks up information from the environment
diaphragm
a large dome shaped muscle that plays an important role in breathing
pharynx
both the nose and the mouth are connected to the pharynx, or throat, and it is a passageway for food and air, making it part of the digestive system and respiratory system.
trachea
(windpipe) lined with cilia and mucus. only air enters.
lungs
the main part of the respiratory system
emphysema
destroys lung tissue and causes breathing difficulties. the damage is permanent even if a person stops smoking
bronchitis
an irritation of the breathing passages in shich the small passages become narrower and may be clogged.
lung cancer
cancerous growths or tumors take away space in the lungs that are used for gas exchange
tar
dark, sticky substance that forms when tobacco burns. it causes cilia to clump together which decreases their ability to prevent harmful materials from entering the lungs.
carbon monoxide
colorless odorless gas that bonds with hemoglobin which would normally ake the place of oxygen
nicotine
a timulant drug; makes the heart beat faster; increases blood pressure; produces addiction
passive smoking
people inhale the smoke from other people. it contains the same harmful chemicals that smokers inhale. it leads to bronchitis and asthma
organs of excretion
kidneys lungs skin and liver
brain
controls most of the body's functions
nerve
a bundle of nerves
sensory neuron
picks up information from the environment
diaphragm
a large dome shaped muscle that plays an important role in breathing
pharynx
both the nose and the mouth are connected to the pharynx, or throat, and it is a passageway for food and air, making it part of the digestive system and respiratory system.
trachea
(windpipe) lined with cilia and mucus. only air enters.
lungs
the main part of the respiratory system
emphysema
destroys lung tissue and causes breathing difficulties. the damage is permanent even if a person stops smoking
bronchitis
an irritation of the breathing passages in shich the small passages become narrower and may be clogged.
lung cancer
cancerous growths or tumors take away space in the lungs that are used for gas exchange
tar
dark, sticky substance that forms when tobacco burns. it causes cilia to clump together which decreases their ability to prevent harmful materials from entering the lungs.
carbon monoxide
colorless odorless gas that bonds with hemoglobin which would normally ake the place of oxygen
nicotine
a timulant drug; makes the heart beat faster; increases blood pressure; produces addiction
passive smoking
people inhale the smoke from other people. it contains the same harmful chemicals that smokers inhale. it leads to bronchitis and asthma
organs of excretion
kidneys lungs skin and liver
brain
controls most of the body's functions
nerve
a bundle of nerves
sensory neuron
picks up information from the environment
interneuron
carries impulses from 1 neuron to another
motor neuron
transmits nerve impulses to activate muscles
central nervouse system
(CNS) control center of the body - brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
all nerves located outsidethe Central Nervous System-includes the Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System. the function is to connect the Central Nervous System to the rest of the body
Three regions of the brain
Cerebrum, Cerebellum, and Brain Stem
Cornea
the clear tissue that covers the front of the eye
pupil
the opening through which light enters the eye
lens
a flexible structure that focuses light
iris
a circular structure that surrounds the pupil and regulates the amount of light entering the eye (colored part of the eye)
Nearsightedness
can see nearby objects clearly
farsightedness
can see distant objects clearly