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74 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
properties
A property is any characteristic that can be used to describe something
physical properties
(8 things)
solubility in water, volume, length, color, odor, melting point, mass, boiling point
chemical properties
chemical properties are observed when changes occur in the identity of the matter in a substance
Meter
distance light travels in a vacuum during a certain time period
mass
measure of inertia of an object
weight
measure of the force of gravity on an object
symbols
used to represent quantities or measured properties
equations
a statement that describes a relationship
hypothesis
conditional explanation that can be tested by further observation or experiment
scientific law
describe an important relationship that is observed consistently in nature
theories
broad working hypotheses that are supported by extensive experimental evidence
work
time spent performing a task
mechanical work
the magnitude of applied force times the distance through which the force acts
Force
a push or pull capable of changing the motion of an object
units for a joule
kg*m^2/s^s
properties
A property is any characteristic that can be used to describe something
physical properties
(8 things)
solubility in water, volume, length, color, odor, melting point, mass, boiling point
chemical properties
chemical properties are observed when changes occur in the identity of the matter in a substance
Meter
distance light travels in a vacuum during a certain time period
mass
measure of inertia of an object
weight
measure of the force of gravity on an object
symbols
used to represent quantities or measured properties
equations
a statement that describes a relationship
hypothesis
conditional explanation that can be tested by further observation or experiment
scientific law
describe an important relationship that is observed consistently in nature
theories
broad working hypotheses that are supported by extensive experimental evidence
work
time spent performing a task
mechanical work
applied force times the distance
Force
a push or pull capable of changing the motion of an object
units for a joule
kg*m^2/s^s
power
the rate at which energy is transformed or the rate at which work is done
energy
the capacity to do work
potential energy
a stationary objects capacity to do work owing its position in space
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
five forms of energy
mechanical, chemical, radiant, electrical, nuclear
Three major fossil fuels
coal, oil, and natural gas
what makes hydrocarbons
five things
plant remains + bacteria + pressure + temp + time
Burning hydrocarbons releases what?
water and CO2
fossil fuel types (4)
coal, kerogen, oil, gas
coal is made up of
freshwater plants
kerogen is a precursor to
oil and gas
oil is made from
saltwater algae
gas is mostly
methane and ethane
6 types of coal
peat, lignite, sub bituminous, bituminous, anthracite, and graphite
____ gallons in a barrel of oil
42
22.2 trillion cubic _____ of natural gas
feet
u-238 makes up ____ of the uranium on the planet
99%
u-235 can undergo
induced fission
oil spills occur from
careless drilling
tanker ships rupture and spill
by products of petroleum collections
Exxon valdez spilled where?
Alaskas north slope
texaco spilled on 2.5 million acres in _____
ecuador rainforest
4 ways to clean up an oil spill
chemical dispersants
containment
in-situ burning
biostimulation- bacteria
solar energy
originates with the thermonuclear fusion reactions occurring in t he sun
two disadvantages to solar energy
and
three ways to solve
sun does not shine consistently
solar energy is a spread out source
and
collection, conservation, storage
the surface recieves about ___% of the total solar energy that reaches the earth
47
chemical elements
defined by each unique type of atom
compounds
pure substances made up of two or more atoms chemically bonded
cohesion
attractive forces between like molecules
adhesion
attractive forces between unlike molecules
3 phases of matter
solids, liquids, gases
temperature
a measure of hotness or coldness in an object
external energy
total potential and kinetic energy of an everyday object
internal energy
total kinetic energy of the molecules in that object
heat
based on total internal energy of molecules
three mechanisms for heat transfer due to a temp difference
conduction
convection
radiation
ways to increase evaporation rate
increase temp
increase surface area of liquid
remove water vapor from surface of the liquid
reduce pressure on liquid
first law of thermodynamics
energy is conserved it is neither created nor destroyed under normal conditions
second law of thermodynamics
with each successive energy transferor transformation in a system, less energy is available to do work
entropy
the tendency of all natural systems to go from a state of order to a state of increasing disorder
atomic number
number of protons in nucleus
isotopes
same number of protons different number of neutrons
noble gases
filled shells, inert
three ways of being with science
ancient skepticism
enlightenment optimism
romantic uneasiness
3 things you need for success in biomass
policies, technologies, markets