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148 Cards in this Set

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A stream's capacity is...
greatest during a time of low water level, constant regardless of water level, minimal during a flood, greatest during a flood
greatest during a flood
a stream's competence is... greatest in a slow flowing stream, greatest in a fast floring stream, constant regardless of water level, constant regardless of stream velocity
greatest in a fast flowing stream
the water on the outside of a stream curves moves...
faster than the water on the inside
the top of a waterfall is an example of
temporary local base level
high-gradient streams are likely to form... narrow v shaped valleys, wide vallesy with meandering stream channels, wide floodplains and river deltas, numerous waterfalls
narrow v shaped valleys
large quantity of groundwater is usually found in layers of sediments and rocks of what kind of porosity and permeability (high or low)
high porosity and high permeability
which can permanently reduce flooding... dams, global warming, artificial levees
none of the above
which features are found at divergent plate boundaries... hotspots, oceanic abyssal plains, midocean reidges, deep ocean trenches
mid ocean ridges
which features are found at subduction zones...hotspots, oceanic abyssal plains, mid ocean ridges, deep ocean trenches
deep ocean trenches
the water on earth comes from...
gases from volcanic eruptions and comets
what is the source of most the energy that fuels the hydrosphere
solar energy
what percentage of the earth's water is fresh and not frozen
less than 1%
the largest use of water in the us is for what
agriculture
the surface salinity of the ocean is highest at the equator, mid lat 30 degrees, north and south polar regions, arctic sea
mid lat 30 degrees
passive continental margins occur at convergent, divergent, or subduction zones
not at plate boundaries at all
where does the salt in the oceans come from
billions of years of weathering and erosion of rocks and volcanic eruptions
what causes surface currents
wind
surface current circulation in the north atlantic flows how
clockwise across the whole n. atlantic
the pump for thermohaline convection could be found where
in the north atlantic ocean
upwelling can be found where
south pacific ocean near 30 lat by south america coast
active continental margin can be found where
north pacific ocean by washington/canada coast
what is the direction of ocean current at the 30 degree lat in the south pacific ocean near south american coast
towards northwest
what time of year would you expect the strongest (fastest) thermohaline convection
in the winter
el nino occurs where
in the equatorial pacific ocean
when el nino occurs, the peruvian fishermen notice what kind of temp in their areas
warming
why do we have tides
sea level rises and falls b/c of the gravitational attraction of moon and sun
how does a full moon influence the tides
high tides are higher and low tides are lower
deep water circulations are caused by
differences in water density
an upwelling carries (warm/cold) (surface/depth) water from the(central coast/ocean depths) to the (coasts/surface)
cold water from the ocean depths to the surface
if the longshore current is flowing from hotel 1 to hotel 3 and hotel 2 decides to put up a groin, which hotel sues?
hotel 3 b/c they will lose their beaches to hotel 2
list 3 reasons why beaches are a dunamic system
1) tides/waves
2) sand gets eroded and deposited
3) weather
4) longshore current
list 3 examples of how human activities have led to serious negative impacts on the natural environment
1) land subsidence due to water depletion
2) loss of beaches due to sea walls
3) flooding due to dams
how much of the earth's surface is covered by water
70%
how much of earth's water is in the ocean
97.5%
what is the energy source for the water cycle
the sun
competence
the largest size of gravel/sediment a stream can transport (related to velocity)
capacity
the total amount of sediment a stream can hold (related to discharge)
ultimate base-level of a river
sea level
termporary local base level
temporary resistant area which water flows over in a river
what happens in the long term when a river flows through a temp local base level
it turns from an ungraded stream to a graded stream (eroded away)
what kind of river vallesy do u find upstream and why
v shaped b/c the river flows faster and downcutting is prominant
what kind of river valleys do u normally find downstream of a river and why
wide valley because slower water and lateral eroxion
what causes floods
weather
what is the natural purpose for river floodplains
to give someplace for the water to go when a river floods
why can artifical levees lead to more severe flooding
bottlenecks for example cause upstream flooding
what are major drawbacks of dam construction
you stop sediment flor-- dams begin to not work and water will eventually fill up the dam and overflow
causes flooding upstream
porosity
amount of holes
what causes the coriolis effect and how does it deflect current in each hemisphere?
earth turning/rotating
n: veers right
s: veers left
deep water is (warm/cold, saltier/less salty, denser/less dense)?
cold, saltier, denser
what factors affect the size of waves
1) wind speed
2) length of time wind blows
3) distance wind blows
what is stellar parallax, how do astronomers use it, what does it tell us about the stars
the parallax is used to determine how far away a star is from us
when you observe the star from one angle and then observe it from a different angle, it appears to have moved in comparison to the stars behind it
the more it appears to have moved, the closer the star is
the less it appears to have moved, the further away
the parallax angle is the angle at which it has "moved"
divergent plate boundaries
move away from one another
convergent plate boundaries
plates move toward each other
transform faults
plates move side by side/ back and forth next to each other
when oceanic lithosphere and continental lithosphere collide what happens
the oceanic lithosphere gets pulled under the continental lithosphere because it's denser
the friction causes heat and the heat melts magma and the magma rises and usually creates volcanoes on the continental plate
silicon tetrahedron
silicon atom surrounded by 4 oxygen atoms
how old is the earth
4.6 bill yrs
when did dinosaurs go extinct
65 mill yrs ago
when did humans first appear
5-7 mill yrs ago
uniformitariansim
geological change occurs over long periods of time by a sequence of almost imperceptible events
catastrophism
sometimes rapid change like earthquakes and volcanoes change earth's surface, etc
what are the three major principles of relative dating
crosscutting, original horizontality, superposition
4 spheres
biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere
the last three are inorganic/inanimate
boys all hate girls
planets in order
mercury, venus, earth, mars, jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune, pluto
jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune, and pluto are all jovian planets
my very excited mom just sent us new pillows
how does the atmosphere regulate temp extremes b/t the polar and equatorial regions
the hot air stays inside the atmosphere at the equator, but moves towards the cooler ares (the poles)
this creates a vacuum for cool air to flow into from the poles
scientific method tells us that...
the natural world behaves in a consistent manner
nothing can ever be proven w/o a doubt
nuclear fussion
when 4H becomes He, it releases a great amount of energy/heat (like the H-bomb)
1st law of thermodynamics
energy can never be created or destroyed
isotope
same # of P, different # of N
what you can determine about stars/planets/galaxies from it's position
motion, gravity, mass
from the brightness of stars/planets, we infer...
size, temp, distance
from the color of a star/planet, we infer...
temp
higher frequency = (higher/lower) energy
higher energy
dopplar effect
high frequency when moving towards u, low frequency when moving away
high freq= blue stars, low freq= red stars
hertsprung-russel (H-R)
two scientists who graphed a pattern between a star's temp and it's luminosity (brightness) and it's size
smaller stars = (more/less) bright, (high/low) temp
less bright, higher temp
% of stars that are main sequence stars
90% (fall on the trend line)
lifespan of large/small stars
large= short lifespans
small= long lifespans
two things that determine lifesan of a star
1) how much eneergy it has to start with (determined by it's size)
2) rate at which it burns energy
major struggle of a star
gravity squeezes the star inward while internal pressure withstands the gravity
star lifeline
gas and dust
main sequence
red giant
planetary nebula
white dwarf
large massed star lifeline
gas and dust
main sequence
(mass loss)
super giant
then either...(supernova explosion)
neutron star and supernova remnant
OR
black hole
binary system
two stars spinning around eachother
black hole
when there is a binary system with one invisible star
terrestrial planets
rocky
smaller
metal core
thin atmosphere
jovian planets
far away and spread out
swirling liquid or gas
larger
mainly gas
rocky core
asteroid vs. meterorite
meteorite enters the atmosphere
lithosphere
solid, outter layer, crust and a bit of outter mantle
"hard shell"
asthenosphere
weak
plastic-like
softer
can move and flow
lower mantle
more solid than asthenosphere
outer core
liquid metal
inner core
solid
layers of the earth
crust
lithosphere
asthenosphere
mantle
liquid outer core
solid inner core
wegner
came up with the idea of continental drift
hot spot
rising plume of hot mantle rock turnes into rising magma and then volcanoes
relative dating
looking at rocks and comparing their age without giving a presise date to them
cross cutting
intrusion of rocks
the rock being cut is older than the rock doing the cutting
discontinuities/unconformity
when rocks are preserved, but some rocks are missing (certain time periods didn't contribute any rock or it was eroded away)
fauna succession
using fossils to determine the age of rocks
time index of fossils used to develop a relative time or rocks
half life
time that it takes for half of the element to change
velocity of a river
how fast the water flows
gradient of a stream
slope
vertical drop divided by horizontal distance
discharge
amount of water in the stream that passes a certain point in the stream in a unit time (m cubed per second)
greatest discharge
amazon
discharge is highest in what month
may when the snow melts
most important force on earth which shapes the landscape
streams/rivers
3 stages of stream process
1) erosion
2) transportation
3) deposition
sediment load
how much a river can carry
dissolved load
chemicals, nutrients, etc that are/can be absorbed by the water and carried away
suspended load
very fine particles that do not settle to the bottom
give water a murky/muddy look
river that carries most amount of sediment into the sea (highest suspended load)
yellow river
bed load
large gravel or sand that's not suspended, but still carried away at the bottom
distributaries
little channels that come off the main channel in an allucial fan/delta
channelization
trying to get the sediment out of a dam to keep it running so it won't fill up
withdrawl water usage
you draw water from a source, use it, and return it locally
ie water going down drains
has a large impact on water QUALITY
consumption of water usage
water drawn from a source, used, and returned to a different source far away
ie irrigation-- water is evaporated
has a large impact on water QUANTITY
hard water
more salt
salinization
when hard water is used to irrigate land and it evaporates, the salt doesn't/can't evaporate so the land becomes laiden with salt
zone of saturation
porous or fractured rock or regolith saturated with water
permiability
how easily water can flow in this substance
salt water intrusion
happens in coastal ares
when a well takes most of the fresh water so salt water begins to come through the well
beach nourishment
dump sand on the beach from somewhere else
very expensive
very temporary (5 yrs on avg)
major nonrenewable energy sources
fossil fuels
major renewable sources
wood, wind, water, sun
amount of oil u can retreat from any given spot
only about 70-80%
global warming
caused by CO2, not the ozone layer
causes destruction of ozone layer
CFCs
found in frion
hairsray
etc
adiabatic change
relationship between temp and pressure
adiabatic heating
if air moves from low to higher pressure, without additional heat change
adiabatic cooling
if air moves from high to lower pressure, without additional heat change
rising balloon...
(bigger/smaller, cooler/hotter, expand/contract)
bigger, cooler, expand
reason we have seasons
the earth is tilted
24 hours of darkness for the north pole in which season
winter
24 hours of sun for the north pole in which season
summer
ocean effect
land heats up faster than ocean
land cools down faster than ocean
water has a very high specific heat and is very resistant to temp change
air moves from (high/low) pressure to (high/low) pressure
high to low
convection cells
13 for each hemisphere
trade winds: equator-30 lat
westies: 30 lat-60 lat
equitorial low
subtropical high
subpolar low
polar high
spring tides
whens sun and moon align
neap tides
when sun and mood are perpendicular to eachother
Continental polar (cP)
from northern canada and internior or alaska
winter: brings cold, dry air
summer: brings cool relief
Maritime Tropical (mT)
from the gulf of mexico and the atlantic
brings warm, moist, unstable air
Fronts
boundary that separates different air masses
warm front
Warm air replaces cooler air
Shown on a map by a line with semicircles
Clouds become lower as the front nears
Slow rate of advance
Light-to-moderate precipitation
Gradual temperature increase with the passage of the front
cold front
Cold air replaces warm air
Shown on a map by a line with triangles
Advances faster than a warm front
Associated weather is more violent than a warm front
Intensity of precipitation is greater
Duration of precipitation is shorter
Weather behind the front is clearer and cooler
stationary front
Flow of air on both sides of the front is almost parallel to the line of the front
Surface position of the front does not move
occuluded front
Active cold front overtakes a warm front
Cold air wedges the warm air upward
Weather is often complex or VIOLENT
Precipitation is associated with warm air being forced aloft
cyclone
(symbol: red L)
A center of low pressure
Pressure decreases towards the center
Winds spiral inwards: convergence
Rising air in center
Anti-clockwise on N. Hemisphere (right-hand rule)
Often brings clouds and precipitation
anticyclone
(symbol: blue H)
A center of high pressure
Pressure increases towards the center
Winds spiral outwards: divergence
Descending air in center
Anti-clockwise on N. Hemisphere (right-hand rule)
Usually brings “fair” weather