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30 Cards in this Set

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Scientific Method
Organized, logical approaches to scientific research and guides to scientific problem solving
Observation
Using the senses of sight, touch, taste, hearing, and smell to gather information about the world
Measurement
Important means of gathering information involving the comparison of some object or phenomenon with a standard unit.
Iridium
Element which is common in meteorites, uncommon in earth rocks; presence a likely indicator of meteorite impact.
Hypothesis
A possible explanation or solution to a scientific question/problem
Experimentation
Process which follows set guidelines to systematically test a hypothesis
Variable
A factor in an experiment which can be changed
controlled experiment
An experiment which is set up to test the effect of changing a given variable
Conclusion
Decision regarding the correctness of the hypothesis after experimentation or testing of the hypothesis is completed.
Theory
A hypothesis or set of hypotheses that is supported by the results of experimentation and observation
Scientific Law
A theory which is able to be proven correct EVERY time it is tested and correctly describes a natural phenomenon
Spectrum
Rainbow of colors resulting from passing white light through a prism
Wavelength
Distance between the crest (top) of one wave and the next
Elements
Substance which has a characteristic set of physical and chemical properties
bright-line spectrum
Series of colored lines given off by an element when heated; each element possesses a distinctly unique pattern which identifies it
Doppler Effect
Phenomenon which causes light wavelengths to appear longer when an object is moving away from an observer and shorter when it is moving closer to an observer
Spectroscope
Instrument scientists use to split starlight into a spectrum in order to determine which elements are present
background radiation
Low levels of energy found evenly distributed throughout the universe in 1960s with radio telescopes
Big bang theory
Explanation of the creation of the universe which is widely accepted by the global scientific community
Oblate Spheroid
true shape of earth: slightly flattened sphere, due to earth's rotation
Axis
Imaginary straight line which runs through the earth from the North Pole to the South Pole
Hyrdrosphere
all the earth's water
Percent of earth's water which is salty
97
atmosphere
layer of gases surrounding the earth
78% nitrogen,
21% oxygen
what are the two most abundant gases in atmosphere? What percent of the atmosphere are each?
crust
thin, solid outermost zone of the earth; makes up 1% of earth's mass
oceanic
crust underlying world's oceans; thin, only 5-10 km thic
continental
crust underlying earth's continents. Varies 32-70 km in thickness - thickest under mountains
mantle
this is the uppermost portion of the mantle, and TOGETHER WITH THE CRUST ON TOP OF IT - forms a rigid layer which is 65-100 km thick
below the _________________________ (#14) this layer is about 200 km thick. It is SOLID ROCK! but because of enormous heat and pressure, this layer flows like putty
Asthenosphere