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106 Cards in this Set

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acid
any susbstance that forms hydrogen ions in water and has a pH below 7
ADP
molecule formed from the breaking off of a phosphate group for ATP results in a large release of energy that is used for biological reactions
allele
alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism
atom
smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element; basic building block of all matter
base
any substance that forms hydroxide ions in water and has a pH above 7
base pairing
a-t and c-g
cancer
uncontrolled cell division that may be caused by enviromental factors and/ or changes in enzyme production of the cell cycle
chemosynthesis
autotrophic process where organisms obtain energy from the breakdown of inorganic compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen
chromosome
cell structures that carry the genetic material that is copied and passed from generation to generation of cells
cilia
short, numerous,hairlike projections composed of pairs of microtubles, frequently move in a wavelike motion and aid in feeding and locomotion
control
the standard in which all of the conditions are kept the same
cytoplasm
clear,gelationous fluid in eukaryotic cells that suspends the cell's organelles and is the site of numerous chemical reactions
citric acid cycle
series of chemical reactions that break down glucose and produce ATP, energizes electron carriers that pass the energized electrons on to the electron transport chain
diploid
cell with two of each kind of chromosome
electron transport chain
series of proteins embedded in a membrane along with energized electrons are transported, as electrons are passed from molecule to molecule energy is released
eukaryote
unicellular or multicellular organisms composed of eukaryotic cells which contain a true nucleus and memebrane-bound organelles
evolution
gradual accumulation of adaptions over time
fermentation(lactic)
series of anaerobic chemical reactions in which pyruvic acid uses NADH to form lactic acid and NAD which is then used in glycolysis, supplies energy when oxygen for aerobic respiration is scarce
alcoholic fermentation
anaerobic process where cells convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol, carried out by many bacteria and fungi
flagella
long, hairlike projections composed of pairs of microtubules, found on some cell surfaces, they help propel cells and organisms by a whiplike motion
glycolysis
series of anaerobic chemical reactions in the cytoplasm that break down glucose into pyruvic acid, forms a net profit of two ATP molecules
homeostatis
organism's regulation of its internal enviroment to maintain conditions for survival
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
mixture
combination of substances in which individual components do not combine chemically and retain their own properties
organism
anything that possesses all the characteristics of life,
peptide bond
covalent bond formed between amino acids
photolysis
reaction taking place in the thylakoid membranes of a chloroplast during light-independent reactions where two molecules of water are split
prokaryote
unicellular organisms composed of prokaryotic cells. lack internal membrance bound structures
ribosome
nonmembrane-bound organelles in the nuclues where enzymes and other proteins are assembled
sister chromatid
identical halves of a duplicated parent chromosome formed during the prophase stage of mitosis, held together by a centromere
spindle
cell structures composed of microtubule fibers, form between the centrioles during prophase and shorten during anaphase, pullinf apart sister chromatids
solution
mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in another substance
stimulus
any condition in an enviroment that requires an organism to adjust
point mutation
mutation in a DNA sequence that occurs from a change in a single base pair
frameshift mutation
mutation that occurs when a single base is added or deleted from DNA and causes a shift in the reading of codons by one base
chromosomal mutations
mutations that occurs at the chromosome level resulting in changes in the gene distribution to gametes during meiosis
adaption
evolution of a structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to stimuli and better survive in an enviroment
aerobic
requires oxygen
anaerobic
no oxygen required
ATP
energy-storing molecules in cells composed of an adenosine molecule, a ribose sugar and three phosphate groups
calvin cycle
series of reactions during the light-independent phase of photosynthesis in which simple sugars are formed from carbon dioxide using ATP and hydrogen
cell cycle
continous sequence of growth and division
centromere
cell structures that joins two sister chromatids together
cholorplast
chlorophyll-containing cell organelles found in the cells of green plants
codon
set of 3 nitrogen bases that represents an amino acid
crossing over
exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase1
centriole
a pair of small cylindrical structures composed of microtubules that duplicate during interphase and move to opposite ends of the cell in prophase
chromatin
long,tangled strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus during interphase
diffusion
random movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration
dynamic equilibrium
result of diffusion where there is continous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration
endocytosis
active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell's plasma membrane and releases the contents inside the cell
exocytosis
active transport process by which materials are secreted or expelled from cell
enviroment
biotic and abiotic surroundings to which an organism must constantly adjust
gamete
male and female sex cells
haploid
cell with one of each kind of chromosome
hypothesis
explanation for a question
isomers
compounds with the same simple formula but different 3-D structures
molecule
group of atoms held together by covalent bonds, no overall charge
nucleus
positively charged center of an atom
osmosis
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
phenotype
outward appearance of an organism
plasma membrane
serves as a boundary between the cell and its enviroment, allows certain materials to enter and leave
response
organism's reaction to a change in its internal or external enviroment
selectively permeable
feature of the plasma membrane that maintains homeostatis within a cell by allowing some molecules into the cell while keeping other out
species
group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
trisomy
one extra chromosome
monosomy
one chromosome missing
zygote
diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg
reproduce,excrete and breath
characteristics of life
hypotonic
less substance more water
hypertonic
more substance less water
isotonic
ratio of water and substance are equal
two alleles for character trait the dominant trait is observed and recessive allele is the allele that dissapears
law of dominance
during fertilization gametes randomly pair to produce four combinations of alleles
law of segregation
smallest part of an element
atom
center of an atom
nucleus
unequal distribution of charge, slightly positive and negative end, water molecule
polarity
holds cell together, lets stuff in and out
plasma membrane
cell wall
protection/structure in plants
nuclear envelope
protect the nucleus
mastercopy of all the proteins
chromatin
makes ribosomes
nucleolus
makes proteins
ribosome
give cell volume and shape
cytoplasm
make room for chemical reactions, delivery
endoplasmic reticulum
repackage and refine proteins
golgi apparatus
store things
vacuole
digest things such as food/bacteria/worn out cells
lysosome
generate energy
mitochondria
holds chlorophyll
chloroplasts
store lipids and starches
plastids
give structure to the cytoplasm
cytoskeleton
transport food/movement
cilia
movement
flagella
transport protein that moves substances from low to high
active transport
no energy required,moves substances from high to low
passive transport
longest phase, two copies of DNA unite
prophase
centromeres attach chromosomes to spindle
metaphase
centromeres split, chromosomes separate
anaphase
begins as chromatids reach the opposite ends of the cell
telaphase
6H^20+6CO^2+light energy
C^6 H^12O^6+ 60^2
C^6 H^12 0^6+ 6O^2
6CO^2 + 6H^2) + energy
differences from DNA and RNA (3)
DNA is double-stranded, dna is a deoxribose sugar, and they both have nitrogenous bases
process of converting the info in a sequence of nitrogen bases in mRNAinto a sequence of amino acids that make up a protein
translation
DNA makes RNA
transcription
DNA in the chromosomes is copied
replication