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33 Cards in this Set

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Fault
– the boundary between two rock sections that have been displaced relative to each other
Plate tectonics
– the theory that the Earth’s crust is made up of rigid plates that move; the motion of these plates causes continental drift
Weathering
– the process by which rock is worn down by water, wind, or ice
Erosion
– occurs when weathered fragments of soil, rock, and other materials are carried away
Convergent
– plate boundaries where plates are moving toward another plate
Divergent
– plate boundaries where plates are moving away from another plate
Elastic rebound theory
– explains how rocks spring back to their original shape after they have been deformed by tectonic force
Epicenter
– the position on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus of an earthquake
Focus or hypocenter
– the point at which stress breaks the friction lock between two plates of the Earth’s crust
Magnitude
– the strength of an earthquake
Richter scale of magnitude
– scale used to measure the strength of an earthquake based on the amplitude of seismic waves
Seismographs
– instruments that record the vibrations of the Earth during an earthquake
Seismologists
– people who study earthquakes
Shock or seismic waves
– stored energy that is released in the form of intense vibrations during an earthquake
Lava
– magma that emerges on the Earth’s surface
Magma
– molten rock that triggers earthquakes and creates volcanoes as it rises within the Earth
Dormant
– inactive (sleeping)
Active
– has erupted recently or is currently erupting or expected to erupt
Extinct
– has not erupted in recorded history and is not expected to erupt
Volcanic types
– Strato, Shield, Cinder Cone, Dome
Crust
– Earth’s outermost geological layer; it is rigid and brittle
8-20km / 5-12 miles thick
Mantle
– The layer directly beneath the crust; composed of solid rock 2900 km / 1800 miles thick
Outer core
– the layer beneath the mantle, composed of hot molten metals – 2300 km / 1429 miles thick
Inner core
– Earth’s central geological layer, composed primarily of solid iron and nickel – 1200 km / 746 mile radius
Lithosphere
– region ranging from Earth’s surface to a depth averaging 100km; consists of crust and upper mantle; broken into a series of plates that move independently of one another
Asthenosphere
– region below the lithosphere; includes mantle that is solid rock under high pressure; this causes the rock to become somewhat fluid so it flows
Crust
Earth’s outermost layer; rigid and brittle
Mantle
Layer directly beneath the crust; made of solid rock
Outer core
Layer beneath the mantle, made up of hot molten metals
Inner core
Earth’s central layer, made primarily of solid iron and nickel
Lithosphere
Earth’s crust and upper mantle area; broken into a series of plates that move independently of one another
Asthenosphere
Below the lithosphere; includes lower mantle and is somewhat fluid
Earth's Layers
Crust Mantle
Outer Core
Inner Core

Lithosphere

Asthenosphere