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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Characteristics of Phylum Echinodermata:
1. Calcium Carbonate Endoskeleton covered by thin epidermis: rays, Spines, and Pedicellaria.
2. Radial Symmetry (Adult)
3. H2O Vascular System
4. Bilateral Symmetry (Larva)
5. Mouth, Stomach, Intestines..
Sea Urchin- Herbavorous
Sea Cucumber- Detritus
6. Simple Nervous System- Nerve Net, Eyespots
Diversity of Echinoderms:
6,000 species: Most in class Asteroidea
Brittle Star : Regeneration
Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars (Globe Shape, No Rays)
Sea Cucumbers
Sea Lilies, Feather Stars
Characeristics of Chordates:
1. Notochord forms backbone of vertebrate
2. Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord- Spinal cord
Bundle of nerves in a fluid filled canal
3. Gill Slits
Paired openings in the pharynx behind the mouth...Sometimes only embryotic
4. Muscle Blocks
Body segments of stacked muscle layers
5. Bilateral Symmetry
6. Endo Skeleton
7. Closed Circulatory System
8. Nervous System -brain, sensory organs
9. Efficient respiratory system
Characteristics of Class Agnatha - Jawless Fish
Lampreys and Hagfish with sucker like mouth:
1. Cartilage Skeleton
2. Gills
3. Reproduction- Sexual- Male/Female: Usually external fertalization and a few internal fertilization
4. Two chambered heart
Characteristics of Class Chondrichthyes- Cartilinous fishes ...Sharks, Rays, Skates-Living Fossils:
1. Most fish have paired fins
2. Jaws-teeth
3. All fish have highly developed sensory system-Smeel and Lateral Line System
4. Scles
5. Some have internal Fertilization- I.E. Sharks
Characteristics of Class Osteictheys- Bony Fish:
1. Bony Skeleton- vertebra
2. Gills
3. Paired Fins ( See Picture)
4. Sense Organs- Swim Bladder
5. Reproduction- most external
6. 2 chambered heart
3 Subclasses of Bony Fish:
1. Lungfish- Gills and Lungs
2. Lobe Fin Fish- 1 living species...Coelacanth- fleshy fins..Deep water...Ancestor to tetrapods (4 limb animals with gills)
3. Ray fin fish- Cat fish, ferch, cod, etc.
fins supported by rays
Class Amphibia:
Thin Moist skin, 4 legs, no claws
3 Orders: Caudata- Salamander & newt
Anura- Frogs, toads
Apoda- legless caecilian
Characteristics of Chordates:
1. Live on land, H2O and both
2. Breed in Water
3. Eggs laid in water- lack protective membranes & shells
4. External Fertilization
5. Metamorphosis:
Frogs: Tadpole (fins, gills, 2 chambered heart, Water) to Adult (legs, lungs, 3 chambered heart, land)
Salamanders: Egg to Young Salamander (gills, fins, looks alot like adult) to Adult (no gills, no fins, 4 legs, breathe through skin)
6. Ectoderm
7. 3 Chambered Heart
Class Reptilia:
Snakes, Turtles, Alligatores, lizzards...Early- Cotylosaur (pg. 841)
Characteristics of Class Reptilia:
1. Dry, Scaley skin-Thick (Water loss and Predatores)-protection
2. 3 Chambered heart in most-*Some 4 chambered heart..I..E. Crocodile
3.Skeletol Changes- Legs and Claws&Jaws
4. Reproduction- Lay eggs
No larval eggs, Amniotic Egg, Internal Fertilization
5. Ectotherms
Adaptations of Class Reptilia:
1. Herbavores/Carnivores
2. Sense organs- smell- heat pits
Jacobsin organ
Orders of Class Reptilia: Squamata
Crocodiles/ alligatores
The 3 ways snakes kill!
1. Constrict
2. Inject Venom
3. Swallow Food Whole
Class Avae- 8600 species- birds
Similarities to reptiles:
1. Clawed toes
2. Scales on feet
3. Internal Fertilization
4. Shelled amniotic eggs
Only organism with feathers
*Preening and Molting*
Contour feather
No Barbs
Characteristics of Birds adapted for flight:
1. Amphibian/ reptile/ bird-limbs
2. Sternam
3. Energy- 4 chambered heart, endothermes, large amounts of food
4. Bones- hollow
5. Airsacs- 1 to 2 or anterior/posterior. Airsacs-O2, always moving into lungs whether inhale or exhale
6.Reproduction- Internal Fertilization, Eggs, Incubate
7. Therapod (Pg. 852)- Ancestor of birds- dinosaur
-Archaeopetry- earliest known bird