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45 Cards in this Set

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two hypothesis on how birds evolved
(main points)
1. birds evolved from thecodonts, reptiles that walked on their hind legs.
2. birds evolved from dinosaurs called coelurosauian theropods, predators that moved on their hind legs
how many species of birds are there?
nearly 9,000 species
what is the class name and meaning in latin for birds?
Class Aves
it means bird
How many Orders are there for birds
27
Define Morphological
pertaining to the study of the form and structure of organisms
what are 4 morphological evidences that separate birds into different Orders and Families?
beaks
feet
plumage
bone structure and muscle
what are some ways that scientists classify birds into orders and families?
use morphological evidence:
beaks
feet
plumage
bone structure and muscle
and behavior and voice
define phylogenetic
pertaining to the evolutionary development of an animal or plant species
what are 3 phylogenic evidences that separate birds into different Orders and Families?
blood proteins
chromosomes
DNA
what does avian mean? latin meaning?
of or characteristics of birds
avis, avi, avian is bird
8 characterists that separate birds from other vertebrates
body covered in feathers
bones are thin and narrow
the forelimbs (in some species) function as wings, used for flight not grasping
two hind limbs with clawed toes support body
toothless, horny beak
body temperature is endothermic
4-chambered <3 has a single right aortic arch
amniote eggs are encased in hard, calcium containing shells
eggs are incubated in a nest
define distinguish. latin?
to recognize as being distinct, to set apart
latin=distinguere. dist=stand apart, be distant
function of down feathers
provide insulating undercoat
function of contour feathers
gives adult birds their streamlined shape and provides coloration
function of flight feathers
specialized contour feathers that are on the wings and tail
why is an oil gland important to a bird? why is the ability to molt important?
birds molt their feathers by using their beaks to rub their feathers with oil thats comes from a preen gland at the base of the tail. the bird replaces flight feathers, which occurs between breeding and migration, which is a major molting
the oil keeps the feathers water-proof, so water doesnt cause the bird to lag
why do birds fluff out their feathers?
for body insulation
2 benefits of being able to fly
enables birds to inhabit new territories across earth
enables them to adapt to various terrains, climates, food sources
enables them to access high places to protect themself and their young
enables them to travel effficiently
2 functions of feathers
provides lift for flight
body insulation and warmth
why is a flexible neck important to a bird?
they can bend down to devour prey and drink water and hide their head when hiding from predators. they can also spread oil across their feathers
why is a flexible tail important?
supports the tail feather, provides additional lift
why is it important that the bones are fused?
the skeleton is more rigid, which leads to stability in flight.
why is the greatly enlarged sternum important for birds?
supports breast muscles and bones
why is 50% of a birds body weight made up of it's flight muscles?
the muscles move the wings, which creates precision. the muscle must also hold the body weight, so there has to be enough muscle
2 differences between bones/skeleton of birds and bones of reptiles or mammals.
birds have light, strong bones, which are thin and hollow. Mammal bones arent hollow
birds have fused bones, which makes the skeleton more rigid, unlike a mammal
why do birds eat large quantities of food?
to produce high metabolic rate necessary to generate heat. they also cannot go long periods w/o eating
why is a rapid breakdown of food necessary in a bird?
for high energy requirements of flight and maintaining an average temperature.
they also need to be light-weight
what part of a bird's body performs similar functions and our teeth and jaws?
food passes through the mouth cavity to the esophogus
gastric fluids break up the food
the gizzard crushes and kneads the food
small stones in the gizzard aids the grinding process
(GIZZARD is the answer)
what is the benefit of excreting waste with little water?
it comes out semi-solid. they dont have liquid waste in a urinary bladder
where does the water from the food go
the water is excreted with undigested water from the intestines
define variation
differences between thing/people
define natural selection
differential survival and reproduction of organisms
define adaption
a structure or behavior that helps an organism survive and reproduce
define competition
organisms contend for limited resources
define incubate
keep eggs warm before birth
endothermic vs. exothermic
endothermic=conserving body heat; keeping a constant body temperature
exothermic=releasing body heat, not keeping a constant body temperature
thermal
rising current of warm air, like an elevator for birds
name 4 characteristics that help a bird fly
bones are thin and hollow, making the bird lighter
the tail helps them steer
the flight muscles support them
their ability to digest a lot of food gives them enough energy for the journey
what does have a large cerebrum and cerebellum indicate?
you have good movement coordination, and have complex behavior patterns
How do owls hear since they don't have ears
disk shaped feathers around their ear openings direct sound into ears, which lead to the eardrum
Why is hearing and sight more important than a sense of smell to birds?
they can adapt to new things by sight and hearing easier than they can adapt with the smell
How does a bird obtain the necessary amount of oxygen when it is flying in a low-oxygen zone?
the air goes through and into the lungs to the air sacs. the sacs connect with the hollow space the bones, which reduces the birds density. oxygen goes out through the lungs, leaving a supply in
what is a disadvantage to having a <3 that beats so fast?
more energy is used to beat the heart, which means that the faster you go, the more you heart pumps, and the more energy is needed
why is being endothermic a benefit to a bird?
birds live in various environments, so during migration they need to maintain the same body temperature.
what is body metabolism?
the chemical process in your body