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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
photosynthesis
the chemical process whereby plants produce food inside their leaves
chlorophyll
the pigment or coloring that gives plants their green color
glucose
the food plants need to live
What are the three main structural parts of a leaf?
1. stem
2. vein
3. midrib
modified leaf
a kind of leaf that has a special design for a special function
What are the two systems of a plant?
1. shoot system
2. root system
taproot
the one main root that a plant sends particularly deep
root cap
the layer of tough protective cells that protects the delicate root tip as the root pushes into the hard ground
root hairs
the tiny projections near the end of a root that help it absorb water and minerals
cellulose
the tough, fibrous material that forms a strong cell wall around each plant cell
fertilization
the process whereby a sperm cell from a pollen grain unites with an egg cell stored inside an ovule
fruit
anything that forms from the ovary of a flower
What are the three parts of a seed?
1. embryo
2. cotyledon
3. seed coat
Botanist
a scientist who studies plants
tree
a tall plant with a single woody stem
annual
a plant that lives for only one year
biennial
a plant that lives for two years
perenniel
a plant that lives for many years
What are the oldest living trees in the world?
Bristlecone pines
What are the tallest living trees in the world?
California redwoods
dendrologists
Scientists who study plants
bud
a structure at the tip of a stem that produces new growth
cambium layer
the layer of the tree's trunk where new growth of bark and wood takes place
annual growth rings
an inner band of light wood and an outer band of dark wood that tell the age of the tree
broadleaf trees
tree group that has flower-bearing and seed-producing plants
deciduous trees
broadleaf trees that grow in temperate climates and lose their leaves in the fall
sugaring
the process of producing maple syrup and sugar
conifers
tree family that bears cones
evergreen
a tree that keeps it leaves all year round
General Sherman Tree
the name of the largest living sequoia tree
fern
a kind of plant that does not bear seeds, but does have roots and leaves
rhizoids
the roots of a fern
moss
a type of plant that does not have roots or true leaves, but grows from a slender thread of connected cells
algae
the group of the world's smallest green plants
fungi
a plant family that does not contain chlorophyll
parasite
an organism that attaches itself to another organism for nourishment
fruiting body
the large spore-forming structure of a mushroom
lichen
a plant that is actuall a combination of fungi and algae
spore
a single cell produced instead of a seed by ferns and some other plants
frond
the leaf of a fern, which grows upward from the upper side of the stem
tropism
the growth of a plant in response to a condition in its environment, such as gravity, water, light, or touch
pollination
the transfer of pollen from the stamen of a flower to the pistil
bracts
colorful leaves used to attract insects to the flower that may take the place of petals
stomata
tiny holes or pores in a leaf, they act as little mouths
cuticle
the waxy covering that coats the skin of a leaf and prevents water from escaping
guard cells
a pair of cells that surround the stoma on a leaf
chloroplasts
tiny packages of chlorophyll within a plant cell
embryo
a miniature, undeveloped plant located within a seed
shoot system
the part of a plant that is visible above the ground
root system
the part of a plant that is below the ground
saprophyte
a fungus or other creature that feeds on dead matter
kelp
the largest type of alga
mycelium
the main part of a fungus, a network of cells strung together in a fungus
hyphae
the tiny, white hairlike structures in which bread mold is first seen
mildew
a fungus that often grows on wet clothes, shower stalls, and plants
girdling
a procedure in which a ring of bark is removed from a tree's trunk, killing the tree
oak
the tree whose fruit is the acorn