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44 Cards in this Set

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the cell's outer covering
cell membrane
a gelatin-like material that is inside every cell
cytoplasm
tough rigid outer coverings that protect the cell and give it shape
cell walls
structures in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that can act as a storage site, process energy, move materials or manufacture substances
organelles
directs all cell activities and is separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane
nucleus
contains the green pigment chlorophyll which gives many leaves and stems their green color
chloroplasts
organelles where energy is released from breaking down food into carbon dioxide and water
mitochondria
small cytoplasmic structures on which cells make their own proteins
ribosomes
a series of folded membranes in which materials can be processed and moved around inside the cell
endoplamic reticulum
stacked flattened membranes
Golgi bodies
a group of similar cells that work together to do one job
tissue
a structure made up of 2 or more different types of tissues that work together
organ
states that all organisms are made up of one or more cells and all cells come from other cells
cell theory
a strand of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coating
virus
living cell in which a virus can actively multiply or in which a virus can hide until activated by environmental stimuli
host cell
the passing of traits form parents to offspring
hereditary
the different forms of a trait that a gene may have
alleles
the study of how traits are inherited through the interactions of alleles
genetics
receiving different genetic information or different alleles for a trait from each parent
hybrid
the trait that dominates or covers up the other trait
dominant
the trait that seems to disappear
recessive
a handy tool used to predict results in Mendelian genetics
Punnett square
genetic makeup of an organism
genotype
the way an organism looks and behaves as a result of its genotype
phenotype
an organism with 2 alleles that are the same
homozygous
an organism that has 2 different alleles for a trait
heterozygous
the inheritence when the offspring of 2 homozygous parents show an intermediate phenotype
incomplete dominance
occurs when a group of gene pairs act together to produce a trait
polygenic inheritence
an allele inherited on a sex chromosome
sex-linked gene
scientists are experimenting with biological and chemical methods to change the arrangement of DNA that makes up a gene through this
genetic engineering
haploid cells that divide by cell division to form plant structures or an entire new plant
spores
plant life cycle stage that begins when cells in reproductive organs undergo meiosis and produce haploid cells
gametophyte stage
fertilization, the joining of haploid sex cells, begins this
sporophyte stage
leaves of ferns
fronds
underground stem
rhizome
fern spores are produced in these structures
sori
heart-shaped gametophyte plant
prothallus
has a water-resistant & contains gametophyte parts that can produce the sperm
pollen grain
the transfer of pollen grains to the female part of a plant
pollination
where the egg is produced
ovule
male reproductive organ
stamen
female reproductive organ
pistil
swollen base of the pistil where ovules are found
ovary
a series of events that results in the growth of a plant from a seed
germination