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141 Cards in this Set

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The speed of light depends on the _______ it travels through.
medium
You can see yourself in a mirror because of the wave property called _______ .
refelction
Tsunamis have a large amount of energy because of their large _________.
amplitude
A place where molecules are far apart is a _________.
rarefaction
The speed of sound is about ___________.
340m/s
__________ wave does not require a medium to travel through.
electromagnetic
Light and water waves are examples of this type of wave.
transverse
Interaction of various different types of waves is known as ________.
interference
You can hear sounds around the corner of a door due to the wave property called _________.
diffraction
When light bounces off a surface it is called __________.
reflection
These waves con be either transverse or compressional.
mechanical
A sound wave would be an example of this type of wave.
compressional
The pitch of a sound of a wave it its _______.
frequency
This is why light shines off a mirror.
reflection
The spreading out of waves around a barrier is called _____________.
diffraction
The changing of the speed of a wave it its ________.
refraction
In relation to sound waves which has a higher pitch...lower frequency or higher frequency?
higher frequency
Why do you see lighting before you hear thunder?
light travels faster that sound
A combination of waves forms a smaller wave, this is known as ___________. `
destructive interference
What type of electromagnetic energy is used to diagnose broken bones?
X-rays
The distance from the crest or trough of a wave to the rest position?
amplitude
The distance between a point on a wave and the identical point on the next wave.
wavelength
The product of wavelength and frequency.
wave speed
The number of waves passing a given point per second.
frequency
What do you call all the water on the Earth's serface?
hydrosphere
The process of water vapor changing to a liquid is called __________.
condesation
How many oxygen molecules make up ozone?
3
In studying ocean currents of the world which is there more of cold or warm currents?
warm
What is the layer of the atmosphere closest to the Earth's surface?
troposphere
Why is the air above the equator always warmer than any place else on the Earth?
Sun's direct angle
What is the source of all energy in our atmosphere?
sun
These are known as windless zones at the equator.
doldrums
What effect is caused by the Earth's rotation?
Coriolis Effect
This connects points of equal temperature.
isotherm
What layer of the atmosphere would be called "Earth's Sunscreen?"
ozone layer
_____________ is the transfer of energy in the form of rays or waves.
radiation
Which layer of the atmosphere would contain electrically charged particles?
ionosphere
__________ is a violent whiriling wind that moves in a narrow path over land.
tornado
What is issued when servere weather conditions already exist?
warning
A person that studies and forecasts the weather using data gathered from any sources is a __________.
meteorologist
What type of front generally results in violent storms?
cold
The interaction of air, water, and ______ causes weather.
sun
A(n) _________ shows weather conditions at one specific location.
station model
In a station model where would the dew point be located?
in the lower left cornr
In a station model where would the temerature be located?
In the upper left corner
In a station model where would the berametric pressure be located?
In the upper right corner
In a station model how can you tell the wind direction?
whatever way the wind barb is pointing
If the barometric pressure is 35.6 on the station model what is the actual barometric pressure?
1035.6
What type of energy transfer occurs when the heat in the sand transfers to the person's feet?
conduction
Positions of constellations appear to change throughout the year because __________.
Earth revolves around the sun
About 90 percent of the stars in space are __________.
main sequence
The hottest stars in space are what color?
blue-white
A main sequence star becomes a _______ after it uses up the hydrogen in its core.
giant
A galaxy that is shaped similar to a football is called _________.
elliptical
The Big Bang theory of the formation and expansion of the universe is supported by observing ____________.
red shift
What is so dense that nothing, including light, can escape its gravity field?
black holes
What refers to the brightness of a star?
magnitude
A group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity is a ___________.
galaxy
These are seen as patterns of stars in the sky _________.
constellations
As Earth travels in its _______, different constellations are visible at different times of the year.
orbit
A measure of the amount of light given of a star is called its __________.
absolute magnitude
A measure of the amount of light received on Earth is a star's ____________.
apparent magnitude
A star begins as a large cloud of dust called a ________.
nebula
What states that the universe began expanding out of an enormous explosion about 15-20 billion years ago?
Big Bang Theory
A red shift in the spectrum of the light from an object indicates the object is moving ___________ you.
away from
The material in the center of a nebula that is about to become a star is called a ___________.
protostar
The star's color is dependent on its _________.
tempuature
Scientists categorize these by their shape ______.
galaxies
What is the most common element in a star?
hydrogen
The coolest stars in the sky are what color?
red
To show how rocks slowly change through time, scientist have created a model called _________.
the rock cycle
__________ is credited for reconizing rocks undergo profound changes which we call the rock cycle.
James Hutton
A process by which sediments are pressed together to form rock is called ________.
compaction
An igneous rock formed below Earth's surface is called ___________.
intrusive igneous rocks
Rock that have changed due to teperature and pressure are called _________.
metamorphic rocks
A mixture of minerals, organic matter, volcanic glass or other materials is called __________.
rock
When hot magma cools and hardens it forms __________ rocks.
igneous
Igneous rocks that form above Earth's surface is called _____________.
extrusive igneous
Rocks that form when sediments are pressed and cemented together, or when minerals form from solutions is called ______________ rocks.
sedimentary
How are metamorphic rocks classified?
foliated and nonfoliated
Sedimentary rocks are classified as _________,_________,and _____.
organic, detrial, and chemical
Marble is what type of rock?
metamorphic
Obsidian and granite are what types of rocks?
igneous
Coal and Chalk are what type of rock?
sedimentary
The resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion is called _________.
inertia
A push or pull on an object is called _________.
force
Any force that resists motion is called _________.
friction
Energy stored in an object is called _________.
potential energy
A rubber band powered car travels a distance of 4 meters in 3.2 seconds. What is the speed of the car? Recall Speed=distance/time.
1.25m/sec
All the 8th grade Science Teachers are fleeing the building on the last day of school. The distance from the science wing to the front door is 140 meters. Coach Dickercon reaches the door in 30 seconds, Mrs. Todd reaches the door in 18 seconds, and Mrs. Kenjura reaches the door in 22 seconds. What is the speed of each teacher?
Dickerson: 4.67m/sec
Kenjura:6.36(repeating)m/sec
Todd:7.7(repeating)m/sec
ight travels 186,000 miles per second: the sun is approaximatley 93 million miles from Earth. How long does it take for a ray of sunlight to reach the Earth in seconds? In minutes? Hint: You must solve for time.
500 seconds
8.3(repeating) minutes
DNA is found in all ____
cells
A part of the DNA code on a chromosome is called _____
gene
A combination of an organism's genetic makeup and the environment's effect on that makeup is called ___
phenotype
An influence, such as sunlight and temperature, is an example of a(n) _______ influence
external
The study of ________ is called genetics
heredity
Gregor Mendel studied heredity by using _____ plants
pea
Dominant traits are seen in _______ generation
each
Each parent passes ____ allele(s) for a trait to their offspring
one
What is independent assortment and what scientist developed the principle?
Alleles for one trait doesn't effect alleles for another trait; Mendel
Compare and contrast adptation, extinction and evolution of a species
Adaptation is the ability of an organism to change structurally or behaviorally to help it survive in its particular environment
Extinction occurs when the last member of a species dies.
Evolution is the change in genetics of a species over time.
What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype?
Genotype: Genetic makeup
Phenotype: Observable product of genetic makeup and environment's influences
By selecting and breeding plants with desired ________, modern corn was developed.
traits
Traits are a result of _______ information in DNA
coded
passing a trait from parents to offspring is ______
heredity
The different forms of a gene are each called a(n) _________
allele
The youngest rocks on the ocean floor are located __________.
mid ocean ridges
Plates of the lithosphere float on the __________.
athensophere
The result of a plate movement can be seen at ______________.
plate techtonics
Collision of the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate from the _________.
Himalaya
The presence of these on several continets supports the hypothesis of continental drift __________.
fossils and rocks
The hypothesis that continents have slowly moved to their current locationis called ________________.
continenal drift
Plates move apart at ______________ boundaries.
divergent
Alignment of iron minerals in rocks as they form shows that Earth's ______________ has reversed itself several times in the past.
magnetic feild
A single supercontinent was once called __________.
Pangea
Plates slide past each other at _____________.
transform boundaries
The boundarybetween two plates moving together is called a __________.
convergent boundary
Seafloor spreading occurs because _________ rises to the Earth's surface.
molten material
Continetal drift states that the continent have moved to their current position quickly or slowly?`
slowly
What type of currents inside the Earth drive plate motion?
convection currents
Differences in _________ cause hot, plastic like rock in the asthensophere to rise to the surface.
density
To complete a convection current, the rising material must eventually __________ Earth.
cool and sink to the
The Andes mountains in South America formed at a _______ boundary
convergent
Active volcanoes are most likles to form at __________ boundaries.
convergent (ocean, continental)
What froms when two continental plates collide?
mountains
What in California is a transform boundary?
San Andreas Fault
Two ocean plates colliding form a _____________ zone.
subduction
Homozygous for a trait means an organism has __________________ for a given trait
2 same alleles
Heterozygous for a trait means an organism has ____________ for a given trait
2 different allele
A model (chart) that helps predict genetic makeup of an offspring is called __________
Punette Square
X and Y-chromosomes are ____ chromosomes
sex
What is natural selection?
When the adapted organisms are selected naturally to survive and increase in numbers; can produce new organisms or new species
Over generations few adaptations take place which result in better defenses, escaping predators, and increasing an organism's numbers
T or F?
F--it's MANY not few
In studying heredity, predicted outcomes always match actual outcomes
T or F?
F--it's sometimes, not always
Recessive traits are always shown in an organism's offspring
T or F?
F--DOMINANT, not recessive
The principle of independent assortment states that a parent passes only one allele for a trait to their offspring
T or F?
F--Segregation, not principle of independent assortment
Dominant alleles will show their effect on the phenotype when they are present
T or F?
T
A TT (tall) plant is crossed with a tt (short) What percentage of the offspring will be tall?
100%
A heterzygous round seeded plant (Rr) is crossed with a homozygous round seeded plant (RR) What percentage of the offspring will be homozygous (RR)?
50%
What type of rock is Granite?
igneous
What type of rock is Chalk?
sedimentary