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40 Cards in this Set

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what are three types of habitat found in the intertidal zone?
Rocky shores, sandy shores and estuaries
What are some of the conditions organisms that live in rocky intertidal zones must be able to tolerate?
• Pounding of the waves
• changes in salinity
•changes in temperature
• periods of being both underwater and exposed to air
What is the "spray zone"?
On a rocky shore, the highest rocks above the highest tide line. The spray zone is never completely covered with water. (A strip of black algae indicates the highest high tide line)
What types of organisms live just below the high tide line?
Barnacles and limpets
How do organisms that live on the rocks adapt to their conditions?
Barnacles can close up their shells, trapping a drop of water inside so they don't dry out when the tide is out. Limpets have a large muscular foot that lets them hold tight to the rocks and they release mucus around their shell to form a tight seal.
What are tide pools?
Depressions in the rocks that hold water when the tide goes out
What are the conditions to which organisms in the tide pool have to adapt?
Changes in salinity and temperature -- as the water is warmed by the sun and evaporates, the water becomes saltier and warmer. If it rains, the water becomes less salty and cooler. Also tide pool organisms must withstand force of the waves.
What kind of adaptions do sea stars have for living in tide pools?
Cling to the rocks with rows of suction cups
What kind of adaptions do sea urchins have for living in tide pools?
if the bottom is sandy, it Can use its spines to dig a hole and bury itself during heavy tides
What kind of adaptions do sea anemones have for living in tide pools?
When out of the water it pulls in its tenacles and folds up into a blob.
What is an estuary?
Coastal inlets or bays where fresh water from rivers mixes with salty ocean water.
What is water called that is partly salty and partly fresh?
Brackish
Where would you find mangrove forests?
Southern Florida and along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
What are two kinds of estuaries?
Mangrove forests and salt marshes
How do mangrove forests protect the coastline?
Mangroves break the action of winds and waves that can damage shorelines.
Describe the habitat of a salt marshes.
• Mud made up of nutrients carried into the marsh by fresh water and tides
• Cordgrass is the most common plant-- it can survive in salt water. Some is eaten by animals and the rest is decomposed by bacteria and supplies nutrients to marsh organisms.
• Tidal channels run through the cord grass and waves break up as they enter the channel so organisms are protected.
Why are salt marshes an important habitat?
Rich envionment for many organisms. Crabs, shrimp, oysters, and fish hatch and feed here before entering the harsher ocean. When the water retreats, the mud flats provide feeding ground for heron, egrets and other birds.
What is threatening to estuaries?
Pollution in rivers that flow into estuaries may affect organisms that live there.
What are the conditions in the neritic zone?
There is plenty of light and nutrients that allow plantlike algae to grow. The algae is food and shelter for other organisms. The water over the continental shelf is shallow and receives sunlight and a steady supply of nutrients that are washed into the ocean from the land
where is the neritic zone?
from the lowest low tide line to the edge of the continental shelf
What are two ways that nutrients may be supplied to the neritic zone?
1) washed from the land into the ocean
2) upwelling currents bring nutrients from the bottom of the ocean to the surface
What are coral reefs?
A diverse habitat found in the neritic zone made of colonies of tiny coral animals.
How are coral reefs produced?
Each coral animal produces a hard structure around its soft body. After the coral dies, the empty structure remains. New coral animals attach and grow on top of it.
Coral reefs can only form in shallow, tropical ocean waters

True or false.- and why?
True. The algae that live in the bodies of coral animals and provide them food need warm temperatures and sunlight.
What is an atoll?
A ring shaped reef surrounding a shallow lagoon.
How is an atoll formed?
1) A fringing reef closely surrounds the edge of an island
2) as the sea floor sinks, the island sinks with it and the reef continues to grow upward.
3) finally the island sinks until it is underground and the ring shaped atoll remains
How do reefs protect coastlines?
They break up surf, preventing waves from severly eroding the land.
How do humans harm reefs?
Boat anchors dragging across a reef can damage it. DIver can break off pieces of reef.
How else are coral reefs endangered?
Changes in water temperature and clearness can affect algae that corals need to live. Too cloudy water prevents the sunlight they need from getting through. Too warm water make the coral release the algae inside them.
What are kelp?
Large heavy algae that grow in parts of the neritic zone.
where do kelp forests grow?
In cold neritic waters where the ocean floor is rocky.
What is a holdfast?
A bundle of rootlike strands that hold the algae to the rocks
What holds the kelp upright in the water?
Bulbs or air bladders at the base of each leaf
What types of organisms live in kelp forests?
Young gray whales hide from predators in the kelp. Sea slugs and snails live among the holdfasts. Sea otters live in kelp forests.
What do kelp use to survive?
They use sunlight and dissolved gases to produce their own food.
Why are sea otters important to kelp forests?
They eat sea urchins which eat the kelp.
How are conditions in the open ocean different from the neritic zone?
1) Only a small part receives sunlight.
2) the water has fewer nutrients
What are the 3 zones of the open ocean?
The surface zone, the transition zone and the deep zone
What is the surface zone?
The part of the open ocean that extends as far as the sunlight reaches beneath the surface.
What are conditions in the surface zone?
It is the only zone in the open ocean that has enough sun to support the growth of algae. These algae are the base of open-ocean food webs.