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29 Cards in this Set

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Sonar
stands for "SOund" "NAvigation" and "Ranging"
A system that uses sound waves to calculate the distance to an object
Scuba
Self-Containing Underwater Breathing Apparatus
Continental shelf
A gently sloping shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent.
Continental Slope
THe steep edge of the continental shelf. The true edge of the continente where the rock that makes up the continent stops and rock of the ocean floor begins
Seamounts
mountains completely underwater
Abyssal plain
Smooth nearly flat region of the ocean floor, covered with silt and mud
mid-ocean ridge
a continuous range of mountains that winds around the Earth passing through all of Earth's oceans.
Actually consists of two parrallel chains of mountains separated by a central valley
Trench
A deep canyon in the ocean floor
What are the layer that cover the earth's core?
crust
mantel
core
crust
thin rocky outer layer of Earth
mantel
the thick layer between the crust and the core.
magma
hot liquid made by hot temperatures inside the earth of material in the earth's mantel
lava
Magma that reaches the earth's surface through cracks in the crust and volcanos. As lava cools it forms a new crust
plates
pieces of the Earth's crust along with the upper mantle that lie beneath the continents and the oceans
seafloor spreading
a process by which the ocean floor is produce. When plates move apart (diverge) magma squeezes up through the cracks and hardens addd ing a new strip of rock to the ocean floor.
Into what zones do scientists divide the ocean?
Intertidal zone, Neritic zone, Open-ocean zone
How are marine animals classified?
according to where they live and how they move.
What are the three categories of ocean organisms?
Plankton, Nekton, Benthos
Where does the intertidal zone begin?
A the highest high tide line on land
Where does the intertidal zone end?
At the lowest low tide line on the continental shelf
Where does the neritic zone start and end?
It starts at the lowest low tide line on the continental shelf and ends at the end of the continental shelf
Where is the open ocean zone?
Beyond the edge of the continental shelf
What are Plankton
tiny algae and animals that float in the water and are carried by waves and currents.
include diatoms, copepods, microscopic crustaceans and tiny young fish
What are Nekton
free swimming animals that can move throughout the water column
(squid, fish, whales, seals)
What are Benthos
organisms that inhabit the ocean floor

like crabs, octopus, lobsters
sponges and sea anemones
What are "producers"?
photosynthetic plankton-- use sunlight to produce their own food
What are consumers?
eat either algae or other producers
What are decomposers?
breakdown waste and the remains of other organisms
What is a food web?
The feeding relationships that exist in a habitat