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75 Cards in this Set

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cell
the smallest unit of matter that can carry on all of the processes of life
Robert Hooke
discoverd and named the "cell" (dead cells) (30x)
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
(1675) was the first person to observe living cells
the cell theory
-all living things are composed of one or more cells
-cells are the basic units of structure and function in an orginism
-cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
Matthias Schleiden
(1838) concluded all plants are made of cells
Theodor Schwann
concluded all animals were made of cells
Rudolf Virchow
concluded cells only come from existing cells
most plant and animal cells are how big?
10 to 50 um (0.002 in.)
how big are some bactirial cells?
0.2 um (0.000008)
why are cells limited in size?
because of their ratio between their outer serface area and there volume
Nerve cells look...
and are good for...
long extentions are reaching out in various directions from the nerve cell enableing the cell to receive and transmit nerve inpulses
skin cells look...
and are good for...
skin cells are flat which is good for covering the body
white blood cells look...
and are good for...
white blood cells can change shape, leave the blood, and enter the areas surrounding blood vessels. this allows them to move through norrow openings and to isolate, engulf,and destroy bacteria that invade the body.
organelles
a cell component that performs specific functions for the cell
cell membrane
a thin membrane that surounds the cell
cell
the smallest unit of matter that can carry on all of the processes of life
Robert Hooke
(1665)discoverd and named the "cell" (dead cells)
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
was the first person to observe living cells
the cell theory
-all living things are composed of one or more cells
-cells are the basic units of structure and function in an orginism
-cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
Matthias Schleiden
concluded all plants are made of cells
Theodor Schwann
concluded all animals were made of cells
Rudolf Virchow
concluded cells only come from existing cells
most plant and animal cells are how big?
10 to 50 um (0.002 in.)
how big are some bactirial cells?
0.2 um (0.000008)
why are cells limited in size?
because of their ratio between their outer serface area and there volume
Nerve cells look...
and are good for...
long extentions are reaching out in various directions from the nerve cell enableing the cell to receive and transmit nerve inpulses
skin cells look...
and are good for...
skin cells are flat which is good for covering the body
white blood cells look...
and are good for...
white blood cells can change shape, leave the blood, and enter the areas surrounding blood vessels. this allows them to move through norrow openings and to isolate, engulf,and destroy bacteria that invade the body.
organelles
a cell component that performs specific functions for the cell
cell membrane
a thin membrane that surounds the cell
prokaryotes
-no nucleus
-circular DNA
-no membrane-covered organelles
-relativly small
-reproduce quickly
eukaryotes
-nucleus
-linear DNA
-many membrane-covered organells
-relativly large
-reproduce slow
the structure of a cell is determined by...
the specific functions carried out by the cell
what are the 3 main components of a eukaryotic cell?
-cell membrane
-nucleus
-other organelles
what passes through a cell membrane?
nutrients and wastes
selectively permeable
some substances easily pass through the membane, while others cannot pass through at all
what are all cell membanes made of?
lipids and proteins
what is the major type of lipids in the cell membane?
phospholipids
what are the parts of a phospholeped molecule?
a polar (hydophilic) "head" and two nonpolar (hydrophobic) "tails"
where in membranes do the steriod molecules (another type of lipid) go?
between the tails of the phospholipids
what is the major membrane steriod found in animals?
cholesterol
where on cell membranes are the peripheral proteins located?
the surfaces (inside and out)
what links pheripheral proteins to cell membranes?
cell membrane lipids or other proteins that are embedded in the lipid bilayer
integral proteins
proteins that are embedded in the lipid bilayer
where is cytoplasim found?
between the cell membrane and the nucleus
prokaryotes
-no nucleus
-circular DNA
-no membrane-covered organelles
-relativly small
-reproduce quickly
eukaryotes
-nucleus
-linear DNA
-many membrane-covered organells
-relativly large
-reproduce slow
the structure of a cell is determined by...
the specific functions carried out by the cell
what are the 3 main components of a eukaryotic cell?
-cell membrane
-nucleus
-other organelles
what passes through a cell membrane?
nutrients and wastes
selectively permeable
some substances easily pass through the membane, while others cannot pass through at all
what are all cell membanes made of?
lipids and proteins
what is the major type of lipids in the cell membane?
phospholipids
what are the parts of a phospholipid molecule?
a polar (hydophilic) "head" and two nonpolar (hydrophobic) "tails"
where in membranes do the steriod molecules (another type of lipid) go?
between the tails of the phospholipids
what is the major membrane steriod found in animals?
cholesterol
where on cell membranes are the peripheral proteins located?
the surfaces (inside ans=d out)
what links pheripheral proteins to cell membranes?
cell membrane lipids or other proteins that are embedded in the lipid bilayer
integral proteins
proteins that are embedded in the lipid bilayer
where is cytoplasim found?
between the cell membrane and the nucleus
cytosol
is the fluid (gelatin-like) in which organelles are bathed
aqueous
the enviornment (fluid) found in and around the cell
what does cytosol dissolve?
salts, minerals and organic molecules
mitochondria
transfers energy from organic compounds to ATP
ribosome
orginizes the synthesis of proteins
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
prepares protiens for export (rough ER); sythesizes steroids, regulates calcium levels, breaks down toxic substances (smooth ER)
golgi apparatus
processes and packages substances produced by the cell
Lysosome
digests molecules, old orgenelles, and foreign substances
Microfilaments and microtubules
contribute to the support, movement, and division of cells
cilia and flagella
propelles cells through the enviornment; move materials over the cell surface
nucleus
stores hereditary information in DNA; synthesizes RNA and ribosomes
what are only found in plant, and some eukaryotic cells, and not in amimal cells?
cell wall, vacuole and plastids
cell wall
supports and protects the cell
vacuole
stores enzymes and waste products
plastids
stores food or pigments; one type (cloroplast) transfers energy from light to organic componds