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47 Cards in this Set

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Gametes
an organismm's reproductive cells, such as sperm, egg, pollen, or ovum cells.
Binary Fission
a form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring
Gene
a segment of DNA that codes for a protein or RNA molecule
Chromosome
the DNA and proteins associated with the DNA coil are made into a structure in which a eukaryotic cell is dividing called a ____________
Chromatids
two exact copies of DNA that make up each chromosome
Centromere
The point where two chromosomes attach.
Homologous (hoh MAHL uh gus) chromosomes
chromosomes similar in size, shape + genetic content
diploid
when a cell contains TWO sets of chromosomes
haoploid
When a cell, like a gamete, contains one set of chromosomes
n
the symbol used to represent one set of chromosomes
zygote
the fusion of two haploid gametes
autosomes
chromosomes, 22 for us, not involved in DIRECTLY determining gender/sex of an individual.
sex chromosomes
xx xy. Have 2 do w/ determining sex.
karyotype
photo of chromosomes in dividing cells which are arrange in chromosomes by size
cell cycle
the repeating sequence of cellular growth and division during the life of an organism.
interphase
first 3 phases of the cell cycle, known as G1, S, and G2.
G1
growth
S
dna copied
two chromatids attached at centromere
g2
microtubules (used to move chromosomes) assembled
preparations made for mitosis
mitosis
the process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell is divided into two nuclei ________
prophase
-DNA condenses into 46 chromosomes (4 to be efficient in the model).
-The nucleus dissolves
-2 spindles are formed inside the cell, which are 3d shaped X’s.
Metaphase
-Chromosomes line up at the equator, or horizontally.
- The spindles migrate to the top and bottom of the cell.
-Spindle fibers elongate, partially extending to the chromosomes.
Anaphase
-Spindle fibers (from the spindles) attach at the centromere of the chromosome. A centromere is the intersection of the 2 figure-8’s (these make up a chromosome).
-Spindle fibers shorten
-Sister chromatids are pulled apart from the shortening of the fibers, and you are left with 8 halves of a chromosome, each looking like an infinity sign, but with ovals, which are slightly facing the middle of the cell.
- The cell starts to squeeze in the middle, and two new cells are almost formed.
Telophase
-The cells fully separate and nuclei are reformed in each of the cells.
-The spindles dissolve within each of the two cells.
Cytokinesis
the process during cell division in which the cytoplasm divided
spindles
cell structures made up of both centrioles and individual microtubule fibers that are involved in moving chromosomes during cell division.
Meiosis
cell division that halves the # of chromosomes when forming specialized reproductive cells
pro. 1
chro. visible nuclear evelope breaks down. Crossing over occurs.
meta. 1
pairs of homologous chro. move to the equator of a cell.
ana. 1
homol. chromo. move to the opposite poles of a cell.
Tel. 1 and Cytokinesis
ch. gather at the poles of the cell, cyto. divides.
pro. 2
a new spindle forms around the chromosomes.
meta. 2
chromosomes line up at the equator.
ana. 2
centro. divide Chromatids move to the opposite poles of a cell.
tel. 2 and cytokinesis
a nuclear envelope forms around each set of chro. cyto divides, haploid offspring cells form.
Independent Assortment
random distribution of homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
spermatogenesis
the process by which sperm are produced in male animals.
sperm
male gametes
oogenesis
the process by which gametes are produced by female animals.
ovum
the larger developed female gamete/egg
clone
individual produced by asexual reproduction which is genetically identical to his/her parent.
sexual reproduction
two parents each form haploid cells (reprod.) which join to form offspring.
fertilization
joining of two oposite sex gametes.
life cycle
the entire span in the life of an organism from generat. to generat.
sporophyte
produces spores in the diploid phase of the life cycle.
spore
haploid reprod. cell produced by meiosis that is capable of developing int oan adult w/o fusing with another cell.
gametophyte
hap. phase that produces gametes by mitosis.