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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Ecology?
Ecology is the study of relationships between organisms and the living and non living factors in their environment
List the ecological organization from most general to most speciic
What is population?
Group of organisms of the same species that live in one area during a specific time
What is community?
The combination of all popualations living in an area and interacting with each other
What is the Ecosystem?
The living community and its environment
List the parts of the Ecosystem, and describe about it
Abiotic Factors- non living components

Biotic Factors- all of the living organisms in an ecosystem
What is the biosphere?
The portion of earth where life exists
List what an ecosystem needs to survive
- It need to have a relative constant source of energy

- And the organic and inorganic nutrients need to be recycled
What are autotrophs and list its qualities?
1. Autotrophs are organisms which create their own food from inorganic molecules

2. For example, Plants
What are heterotrophs and list its qualities?
- Organisms which cannot create their own food

- Depend on other organisms for food
List one type of heterotrophs and list qualities and examples
- Organisms that act as decomposers by absorbing nutrients from dead organic matter
- Most common example is mushrooms, fungi
List one type of heterotroph and list qualities and examples
- Plant eaters

- Example rabbits, deer
List one<C> type of heterotrophs and list qualities and examples

- Eats other animals
List carnivores and their qualities

- hunt and kill other animals for food


- search out dead or already dying organisms for food
Eats both plants and animals

EX. most humans
What is a food chain?
A food chain is a transfer of energy from green plants(autotrophs) through a series of organisms with repeated stages of eating and being eaten
List the base of all food chains and list qualities

- Organisms which produce their own food
- First or base trophic level
- EX. Plants
List the second level in a food chain
Primary consumers(Heterotrophs)

- Organisms which consume producers
- Second level
- EX. mouse
List the third level in food chain
Secondary consumers
- Also heterotrophs
- Organisms which consume primary consumers
- Third trophic level
-EX. foxes
The final level in food chain

- Break down dead producers and consumers
- EX. Mushroom
What is a food web?
- A food web has many interconnected food chains
- Non-linear
What do ecological pyramids represent?
Illustrate the relationship between producers and consumers by indicating decrease in #'s or biomass, or energy at each trophic level
List the ecological pyramids
- Pyramid of energy
- Pyramid of biomass
- Pyramid of numbers
What is the 10% rule?
10% energy rule means that when you move up a trophic level, 90% of the energy is lost as heat energy, and only 10% of the energy is used for the life process of the organism, or for further use
What are the symbiont and host?
- Symbiont refers to the SMALLER participant in a symbiotic relationship

- Host is the LARGER participant in the relationship
List the three types of symbiotic relationships
- Commensalism
- Mutualism
- Parastitism
What is commensalism?
It's a symbiotic relationship where the host is neither harmed nor helped, but the symbiont benefits
What is mutualism?
- It's a symbiotic relationship where both symbiont and host benefit

- EX. birds on rhino
What is parasitism?
- It's a symbiotic relationship where both symbiont benefits whereas the host is harmed

- EX. Fleas on a dog
What are biomes?
1. Refers to most common climax ecosystem that will form in geographic regions of similar climatic conditions
What is our biome?
It's the temperate deciduous foresets
What is one type of biome?

- Land biomes are characterized by climax vegetation in the region
- Major plant and animal zones are determined by major climatic zones
What do climates vary too?
- Precipitation
- Light
- Altitude
- Latitude
- Temperature
What is another type of biome? <W>
- Represent largest ecosystem
- More stable than land biomes
- Factors affecting the kinds and #'s of organisms
- Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide
- Temperature
- Light
What is succesion? And what are the types?
- Succesion is the process of gradual change over time

- The types are primary and secondary
What is primary succesion?
- Begins on a virtually lifeless soil
- Soil is not yet filled with nutrients for self sustaining ecosystem
- EX. volcanic island
What are the pioneer species(qualities) in primary succesion?
- Must be very simple
- Live off few nutrients
- Modify the environment so more complex organisms may live
- Add nutrients
- Modify soils
What is secondary succesion?
- Occurs where an existing community has been cleared by some disturbances
- Soil is left intact
-EX. forest fire, flood
What are the pioneer species(qualities) in secondary succesion?
- More complex than in primary succesion
- More complex organisms settle quickly
-EX. Grasses and weeds
What is Climax community?
- The end result of succesion
- Each biome is a different climax community
What is a habitat?
A place where a particular organism lives within an environment
What is niche?
Niche is the particular combination of resources that an organism is able to exploit
What are the three elements in a carbon cycle?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
What important steps are invoved in a carbon cycle?
Cell respiration and carbon fixation, respiration and photosynthesis
What is involved in the nitrogen cycle?