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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the goal of science
To understand the world around us
Theory
The most logical explanation for events that occur in nature
Law
When the theory is passed and has being accepted
Geology
The study of rocks and minerals
Meteorology
The study of the atmosphere
Oceanography
The study of Earth's oceans
Astronomy
The study of characteristics of objects in space
Astro
Of a star
Geo
Earth
Meteor
Things in the atmosphere/air
Logy
Science of
Graphy
Description of
Nomy
Systemized knowledge of
Kilo
1000
Centi
.01
Milli
.001
Steps to the Scientific Method
1. Purpose/Problem
2.Research
3.Hypothesis
4.Experiment
5.Analysis
6.Conclusion
7.Re-Experiment
8.Error Analysis
Fair test
To only test one variable at a time
Variable
The condition being tested
Control
An experiment run uder ideal conditions, no variable being tested
Metric System
The scientific system of measurement
Meter
The basic unit of length
Volume
The amount of space that an object takes up
Gram
The basic unit of mass
Newton
The basic unit of weight
Density
Mass per unit volume
Temperature
Measured in degrees Celsius
Dimensional Analysis
Converting one unit to another
Optical telescope
Collects and focuses visible light from distant objects
Refreacting Telescope
Under the catagory of Optical Telescopes. It is a series of lenses which are used to focus light
Reflecting Telescope
Under the catagory of Optical Telescopes. It is a series of mirrors which collects light
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Consists of Visible and Invisible light
Visible Light
Collected by optical telescopes. Consists of ROYGBIV
Invisible Light
Consists of x rays, ultraviolet rays, infrared rays, and radio waves
Radio Telescope
Collects radio waves from space.
Infrared Telescope
Detects heat energy which is given off by all objects. This telescope is used in orbit because infrared rays from distant objects are not able to pass through our atmosphere
Ultra Violet Telescope
Detects UV rays. It must be used outside of our atmosphere because the atmosphere blocks uv rays
X ray telescope
Detects X rays out of our atmosphere
Hubble Telescope
Made of different types of telescopes
P waves
Primary waves. These can travel through solids liquids and gases
S waves
Secondary waves. These can pass through solids
Seismograph
An instrument that detects and records seismic waves
Inner Core
Begins at a depth of 5150 km and has a diameter of 2600 km. The temperature is 5000 degrees celsius
Outer Core
Surrounds the inner core. Begins at a depth of 2900 km and is 2250 km thick. It is a liquid. The temperatures range from 2200 C to 5000 C
Mantle
The layer above the outer core. Extends to a depth of 2900 km. It consists of iron, siliccon, oxygen and magnesium
Plasticity
The ability for a solid to flow
Moho
An imaginary line that exists at a dpeth of 32-64 km below the surface. It separates the crust from the mantle
Igneus rock
From solidified lava
Sedimentary rock
Formed by sand rock and other materials which are cemented together
Metamorphic rock
Formed by igneus and sedimentary rocks which are changed from heat pressure of chemical reactions
Lithosphere
The solid topmost part of the earth, crust.
Asthenosphere
Directley below the lithosphere. The uppermost layer of the mantle.
Traditional Model
One of the three modelss which are competing for acceptance. It has a liquid outer core and a solid inner core, both made of iron and nickel
Core within core model
Inner most inner core. Has a solid innermost core of crystalized iron which exists within the solid inner cre
Nuclear earth model
Liquid outercore. The inner core consists of a nuclear core of crystalized nickel silicide.
Stress
Forces that push and pull on the earths crust
Compression
Squeezes the rocks of the crust together.
Tension
Pulls rocks, stretching them over a large area
Shearing
Forces the rocks in 2 opposite directions
Joints
Occur when a rock fractures along flat surfaces
Fracture
When a rock cracks or breaks
Faults
A break or crack on which rocks move
Normal Fault
Tension has caused the hanging wall to move down in relation to the foot wall
Reverse fault
Compression has caused the hanging wall to move up in relation to the foot wall
Thrust Fault
A type of reverse fault. Compression has caused the hanging wall to slide over the foot wall
Haning wall
The block of rock above a fault
Foot wall
The block of rock below a fault
Lateral fault
Caused by shearing. Rocks slide to the left and right on this fault
Fault block mountains
Created from normal faults
Rift Valleys
Formed when land between 2 normal faults slides down
Fold
Wen stress cased a rock to bend
Anticline
An upward fold in a rock
Syncline
A downard fold in a rock
Plateau
A large area of flat land that is raised high above sea level
What is an earthquake
The shaking or trembling that results in sudden movement of part of the earths crust
Focus
The underground point of origin of an earthquake
Epicenter
The point directly above the focus on the earths surface
surface waves
L waves. The slowest moving seismic waves. They originate on the surface of the epicenter.
Richter scale
Created by Charles Richter and Beno Gutenburg. Was a scale used to determine the earthquake's strength
Body waves
Consist of P and S waves
Love waves
Q waves. They travel horizontally
Rayleigh waves
R waves. They travel both horizontally and vertically
Spreading zone
Where new crust in pushing 2 plates in opposite directions
Subduction Zone
One plate overrides another forcing it down into the mantle where it melts.
Transform faults
plates slide past one another forcing them down into the mantle where they melt.
Magnitude
How strong an earthquake is
USGS
United States Geological Survey
Tectonic Earthquake
Caused by movement in the crust
Volcanic Earthquake
Caused by volcanic activity
Collapse Earthquake
Caused when a mine or cavern collapses
Explosion Earthquake
Caused by the detonation of nuclear/chemical weapons