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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
highest point of a wave
crest
lowest point of a wave
trough
any combination of two or more waves that exist in the same place at the same time
interference
interference in which the waves combine so that the resulting wave is larger
constructive interference
matter through which a wave travels
medium
wave that causes particles of the medium to move parallel to the direction the wave travels
longitudinal wave
interference in which the waves combine so that the resulting wave is smaller
destructive interference
bending of a wave as it passes an edge or an opening
diffraction
any mixture of immiscible liquids in which the liquids are spread throughout on another
emulsion
a mixture that looks uniform when stirred or shaken that seperates into different layers when it is no longer agitated
suspension
a mixture of very tiny particles of pure substances that are dispersed in another substance but do not settle out of the substance
colloid
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly spread throughout a single phase
solution
a solution that is able to dissolve more solute
unsaturated solution
a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute at the given conditions
saturated solution
a solution holding more dissolved solute than is specified by its solubility at a given temperature
supersaturated solution
a measure of the hydronium ion concentration in a solution
pH
a weak base that neutralizes excess stomach acid
antacid
a basic solution that can either be used as a disinfectant or to remove colors or stains
bleach
a substance that kills harmful bacteria
disinfectant
a nonsoap water-soluble cleaner that can emulsify dirt and oil
detergent
a cleaner that dissolves in both water and oil
soap
a substance that donates hydrogen ions, to form hydronium ions, when dissolved in water
acid
a substance that either contains hydroxide ions, or reacts with water to form hydroxide ions
base
The protein in hair?
caraton
What process is responsible for apples turning brown?
oxidation
Process in which nucleus splits into two or more fragments
fission
a radioactive material added to a substance so that the substance's location can be detected later
tracer
charged particles or energy emitted by an unstable nucleus
radiation
bending of waves as they pass from one medium to another
refraction
the time required for a wave to pass a certain point
period
greatest distance that particles in a medium move from their normal position when a wave passes
amplitude
time required for half a sample of radioactive nuclei to decay
half-life
nuclear radiation that arises naturally from cosmic rays and from radioactive isotopes in the soil and water
background radiation
process by which an unstable nucleus emits particles or energy
radioactivity
Series of fission processes in which the neutrons emitted by a dividing nucleus cause the division of the other nuclei
chain reaction
electron emitted during radioactive decay
beta
Interaction that binds protons and neutrons together in nucleus
strong force
minimum mass of a fissionable isotope in which a nuclear chain reaction can occur
critical mass
High-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted during decay
gamma
positively charged particle, 2 protons + 2 neutrons
alpha
release of a high-energy neutron during radioactive decay
neutron emittion
the maximum velocity reached by a falling object that occurs when the resistance of the medium is equal to the force due to gravity
terminal velocity
the motion of a body when only the force of gravity is acting on it
free fall
the tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motion with a constant velocity
inertia
the force of attraction between two particles of matter due to their mass
gravity
the force between two objects in contact that opposes the motion of either object
friction
forces acting on an object that combine to produce a net force equal to zero
balanced forces
forces acting on an object that combine to produce a net nonzero force
unbalanced forces
the cause of acceleration, or change in an objects velocity
force
change in velocity divided by the time interval in which the change occurred
acceleration
a quantity defined as the product of an object's mass and its velocity
momentum
distance traveled divided by the time interval during which the motion occured
speed
quantity describing both speed and direction
velocity
measures effects of a force over a distance
work
sum of kinetic and potential energy
mechanical
energy of motion
kinetic
stored energy
potential
measures rate at which work is done
power
made of more than one simple machine
compound
measures ratio of useful work to input work
efficiency
one of six basic types of machines
simple
measures how much machine multiples force or distance
mechanical advantage
bouncing of a wave
reflection
observed or apparent change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving
Doppler Effect
the number of vibrations per second
frequency
wave that causes particles of the medium to move perpendicular to the direction the wave travels
transverse waves