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### 20 Cards in this Set

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 Earthquake shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface. What is Stress, and what are the types of it? The movement of Earth's plates creating powerful forces that squeeze or pull the rock in the crust;a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.-Shearing-Tension-Compression Shearing Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions.can cause rock to break and slip apart or to change its shape. Tension Stress force that pulls on the crust, stretching rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle.occurs where 2 plates are moving apart. Compression Stress force that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks Deformation any change in the volume or shape of Earth's crust Fault A break in Earth's crust where slabs of crust slip past eachother.- usually occur along plate boundaries, where the forces of plate motion compress,pull or shear the crust so much that the crust breaks. Strike-slip fault The rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways w/little up or down motion. Normal Fault The fault is at an angle, so one block of rock lies above the fault while the other block lies below the fault.the half of the fault that lies above is hanging wall. the one that lies below is the footwall. Reverse Fault has same structure of normal fault, but the blocks move in opp. direction. compression forces produce reverse faults Fault-block mountain forms when... when normal faults uplift a block of rock. Folds Bends in rock that form when compression shortens and thickens part of Earth's crust Anticline Fold in rock that bends upward into an arch Syncline Fold in rock that bends downward in the middle to form a bowl Plateau large area of flat land elevated high above sea level. can form when vertical faults push up a large, flat block of rock Focus point beneath Earth's surface where rock that is under stress breaks, triggering an earthquake. Epicenter The point on the surface directly above the focus P waves -1st waves to arrive are primary waves. like earthquake waves that compress and expand like accordian Seismic waves vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake. these waves carry the energy of an earthquake away from the focus, thru. Earth's interior, and across the surface.waves are like ripples in pond. S waves Secondary waves-after p waves. are earthquake waves that vibrate from side to side or up and down. shake ground back and forth. when these hit surface, strike structures violently