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20 Cards in this Set

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Earthquake
shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface.
What is Stress, and what are the types of it?
The movement of Earth's plates creating powerful forces that squeeze or pull the rock in the crust;a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.-Shearing-Tension-Compression
Shearing
Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions.can cause rock to break and slip apart or to change its shape.
Tension
Stress force that pulls on the crust, stretching rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle.occurs where 2 plates are moving apart.
Compression
Stress force that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
Deformation
any change in the volume or shape of Earth's crust
Fault
A break in Earth's crust where slabs of crust slip past eachother.- usually occur along plate boundaries, where the forces of plate motion compress,pull or shear the crust so much that the crust breaks.
Strike-slip fault
The rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways w/little up or down motion.
Normal Fault
The fault is at an angle, so one block of rock lies above the fault while the other block lies below the fault.the half of the fault that lies above is hanging wall. the one that lies below is the footwall.
Reverse Fault
has same structure of normal fault, but the blocks move in opp. direction. compression forces produce reverse faults
Fault-block mountain forms when...
when normal faults uplift a block of rock.
Folds
Bends in rock that form when compression shortens and thickens part of Earth's crust
Anticline
Fold in rock that bends upward into an arch
Syncline
Fold in rock that bends downward in the middle to form a bowl
Plateau
large area of flat land elevated high above sea level. can form when vertical faults push up a large, flat block of rock
Focus
point beneath Earth's surface where rock that is under stress breaks, triggering an earthquake.
Epicenter
The point on the surface directly above the focus
P waves
-1st waves to arrive are primary waves. like earthquake waves that compress and expand like accordian
Seismic waves
vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake. these waves carry the energy of an earthquake away from the focus, thru. Earth's interior, and across the surface.waves are like ripples in pond.
S waves
Secondary waves-after p waves. are earthquake waves that vibrate from side to side or up and down. shake ground back and forth. when these hit surface, strike structures violently