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82 Cards in this Set

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Which is more likely to burn: Products of the Mineral world or products of the plant & animal world?
Plant and Animal are more likely to burn!
i.e. Wood, Fat, Oil...etc
What are some examples of products of the mineral world?
Are they flammable?
Rocks, Sand, Water
No, not flammable.
Is carbon flammable?
Carbon is mostly found in
(a) living things
(b) non-living things
Yes very flammable.
Living Things
Who was Jakob Berzelios?
Swedish Chemist
in 1807 he introduced our:
-System of chemical symbols and formulas
- suggested the classification of substances as ORGANIC (if they were living) and INORGANIC (if they were non living)
Define: Organic Chemistry
the study of compounds containing carbon, whether or not the compounds were formed by living things.
More chemical compounds are formed with _______ than with all other elements combined?

How many compounds have been estimated?
5 Million, list is still growing
How many covalent bonds does carbon form?
What kind of shapes can cabon bond to form?
three dimensional shapes
or any combination of these
the molecules may also have several branches
Carbon atoms may for how many bonds?
Single, Double, or triple.
No other substances exhibits as much variety in bonding as does carbon.
| | \ /
- C - C - C = C -C=C-
| | / \
Can carbon may form single and/or double bonds with the atoms of other elements?
Which elements?
Can carbon form compounds that contain different structural arrangements and combination with the same molecular formula?
Same molecular formula.
Different shape.
Totally possible

What is it called?

What the heck is a hydrocarbon?
Compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon.
Fuels lubricants medications clothing
What are Alkanes?
Hydrocarbons having only SINGLE bonds between carbon atoms.

End with what?
What are Alkenes?
Hydrocarbons containing one ore more DOUBLE bonds between carbon atoms.

End with What?
What are Alkynes?
Hydrocarbons containing one ore more TRIPLE bonds between carbon atoms.

End with what?

What is a cyclic?
Ring shaped structure.
Carbon can form cyclic shapes.
What are aromatic compounds.
Hydrocarbon compounds with pleasant smelling aromas.
Ring Shaped.
What are substitued hydrocarbons?
Hydrocarbons that have one or more hydrogen atoms REPLACED by different atoms of groups of atoms.
Different properties
What is a functional group?
A group of atoms capable of replacing a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon.
carboxylic acids
What are haloalkanes.
Alkanes with one ore more hydrogen atoms replaced by atoms of halogen.
Wich organic compound has:
- one or more hydrogen atoms replaced by an -OH group?
What kind of organic compound contains the functional group -COOH?
Carboxyilc acids.
sometimes just
orgainc acids
pungent odors
What functional group is -COO-?
Unlike the alcohol and carboxylic functional groups, the ester group is found in the middle of the molecule.
What is soap?
An organic compound.
a molecule is a long narrow molecule with a polar end and a nonpolar end
can be used to dissolve ____ Substances.
What is a detergent?
organic compound similar to soaps but capable of cleansing even in hard water.
plastics and related materials are made by linking together hundreds or even thousands of small organic molecules into much larger molecules called what?
What is a huge organic molecule compsed of many smaller molecules?
What are Polymers made out of?
What chemical process produces monomers?
What is Biochemistry?
The study of the chemistry of life.
What are the four primary types of organic compounds found in living cells?
nucleic acids
what are the most important energy producing compounds in a cell?
What do we call relatively simple carbohydrates containing up to a dozen carbon atoms?
What common six-carbon sugar is important to both animals and plants?
____ Fructose
What two simple sugars are the primary ingredients of honey?
Glucose and Fructose
La G&F
What is the name of the process by which green plants produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water, using the energy of the sun?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O ->light-> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
What is the term for a molecule composed of two simple sugars linked together?
what is the chemical name of table sugar?
What is the general term for a natural sugar polymer made of hundreds or even thousands of simple sugars?
what type of polysaccharides are used for food storage in plants?
What polysaccharide is used for food storage in animals and people?
What polysaccaride, also known as dietary fiver, forms the walls of plant cells and gives plants and trees their rigid structure?
What are lipids?
A group of organic molecules that includes fats and oils, used to store energy in cells, build cell parts, and transfer chemical messages between cells.
Not a polymer
What is the most basic type of lipid molecule?
the fatty acid
Usually combined into larger molecules called fats.
What is fat?
A fat consists of three fatty acid "rods" with their "handles" attached to a single molecule of glycerol, an alcohol.
What is an oil?
A fat that is liquid at room temperature.
What are the two classifications of fats?
Saturated or Unsaturated.
What is saturated fat.
A type of fat containing no double bonds, with as many hydrogen atoms as possible; usually solid at room temperature; less healthy for humans than unsaturated fats.
What is unsaturated fat?
A type of fat containing one or more double bonds, having fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fat; usually liquid at room temperature.
What is monousatureated fat?
If only one pair of hydrogen atoms is lacking in the fat molecule.
What is polyunsaturated fat?
If two or more hydrogen atom pairs are lacking in the fat molecule.
Also contain a fatty acid called linoleic acid.
What is linoleic acid?
found in a polyunsaturated fat.
an essential nutrient.
What is cholesterol?
makes bile, viamin D, cell membranes and hormones
What are lipopoteins?
globules of cholesterol encased in a membrane made of lipids and proteins.
Transports cholesterol through the bloodstream
What does LDL stand for?
Low density lipoprotien
a disease of the heart and arteries
What does HDL stand for?
High density lipoprotein
reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
What are proteins?
complex organic molecules used to build and maintain living cells.
What are proteins composed of?
sometimes other elements
Which complex organic molecule is a major component in many of the structures of the cell? ( special ones direclty control the chemical activities in the cell)
What are the "building blocks of Proteins"?
Amino Acids
Which nutrient is said to be the buildinng blocks of your body?
How many different types of amino acids are there?
May be combined in various ways to produce different kinds of protein.
Why are some amino acids known as ESSENTIAL amino acids?
They are an essential part of our diet because our bodies cannot synthesize them; they must be obtained directly from food.
What links amino acids together into proteins?
Peptide bonds
can be compared to the couplings that link box-cars in a freight train.
Which type of proteins consists of long, fairly straight chains of amino acids and are used to make hair and fingernails?
Fibrous proteins
Which category of proteins have intricate three-dimensional shape?
Globular Proteins
What is an enzyme?
A globular protein that initiates or regulates a chemicial reaction within a cell; a biochemical catalyst
What broad category of chemical compounds contains the plans or "blueprints" that guide the construction of all proteins in a cell?
nucleic acids
Molecules of what substance are the "master program" of the cell?
What does DNA stand for?
deoxyribonucleic acid
Name three reasons why DNA is important
It is found in every cell of living organism;
it contains the blueprint for every protein in the body and determines what proteins are produced, thus determining the form and function of every cell of an organism;
it directs the construction of new cells;
it directs how new cells are put together during the growth of an organism or the repair of damaged tissues;
it controls heredity, ensuring that all living things reproduce after their kind.
answers may vary, but may include:
What do we call the nitrogen-containing molecules that compose the "rungs" of the DNA "ladder"?
Bases (base pairs)
What term refers to the double-spiral structure of the DNA molecule?
Double Helix
What is a gene?
a segment of DNA containing the code for a specific substance, task, or characteristic.
Molecules of what substance serve as "working coppies" of the genetic code in protein construction?
What do the letters RNA stand for?
ribonucleic acid
What phosphorus compound serves as the energy carrier of the cell?
The "storage batteries" of the cell.
Without it, life could not function.
What do the letters ATP stand for?
adenosine triphosphate
What do we call the process by which DNA is coped?
What is the term for a random mistake in the DNA code?
What do we call the process of "burning" glucose in the "power plants" of the cell to produce energy.
cellular respiration
What do we call the overall process by which the body produces and uses energy from food?