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24 Cards in this Set

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PALPATION



CH. 1
palp = gently touching.
Examiner feels body surfaces with the hands.One of 3 non-invasive techinques to asses aspects of body structure & function
AUSCULTATION



CH. 1
auscult = listening.
Examiner listens to body sounds to evaluate the functioning of certain organs, using stethoscope. One of 3 non-invasive techinques to asses aspects of body structure & function.
PERCUSSION



CH. 1
percus = beat through.
Examiner taps on the body surface with the fingertips and listens to the resulting echo. May reveal fluid, info about size, consistency & position of underlying structure. One of 3 non-invasive techinques to asses aspects of body structure & function.
AUTOPSY



CH. 1
Postmortem exam of body & dissection of internal organs to confirm/determine cause of death.
DIAGNOSIS



CH. 1
dia = through; gnosis = knowledge
science & skill of distinguishing one disorder or disease from another, using patient's signs & symptoms, medical history, physical exm, & lab tests.
EFFECTS OF RADIATION



CH. 2
Harmful: can break apart moledules, producing tissue damage as well as cancer. Radon -222 is gas seeping out of soil increasing lung cancer risks.
Beneficial: medical imaging & cancer treatment.
EFFECTS OF FREE RADICALS



CH. 2
Exposure to UV radiation in sunlight & xrays; carbon tetrachloride solvent in drycleaning. Cancer, atherosclerosis, Alzheimers, emphysema diabetes mellitus, cataracts, macular degenration, rheumatoid arthritis. Antioxidants inactivate axygen-derived free radicals.
SATURATED FATS, CHOLESTEROL, & ATHEROSCLEROSIS



CH. 2
Atherosclerosis is progressively worsening disorder in which fatty plaques (deposits) form in the walls of the arteries, narrowing passageway and limiting blood flow. Diet high in saturated fats & cholestrol greaten risk of developing aaatherosclerosis. Eat less red meat & fat dairy products.
GALACTOSEMIA



CH. 2
galactos = milk; emia = in the blood.
Inherited disorder in which the monosaccharide galactose builds up in the blood, increasing the galactose level because the enzyme that converts galactos to glucose is absent. Infants with the disorder fail to thrive within a week after birth due to anorexia, vomiting & diarrhea. Treated by eliminiating milk from diet.
DNA FINGERPRINTING



CH. 2
In each person, certain DNA segments contain base sequences that are repeated several times.; both the number of repeat copies in one reagion & the number of regions are different from one person to another. Use hair, semen, blood.
MEDICAL USES OF ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS


CH. 3
Most IV solutions (liquids infused into the flood of a vein) are isotonic. Isotonic saline & D%W (dextrose 5% in water)
MEDICAL USES OF HYPERTONIC SOLUTIONS


CH. 3
Infusion of hpertonic solution to treat cerebral edema (excess interstitial fluid in the brain, such as mannitol that causes osmosis of water from interstitial fluid into the blood. Kidneys then excrete excess water from blood into urine.
MEDICAL USES OF HYPOTONIC SOLUTIONS


CH. 3
Either IV or oral, used to treat people who are dehydrated. Water in the solution moves from bllod into interstitial fluid & into body cells to rhydrate. Sports drink or water.
DIGITALIS



CH. 3
Strengthens heartbeat. Given to heart failure patients. Slows the sodium-potassium pumps, lets more NA+ accumulate inside heart muscle cells. Increase in level of calcium in cytosol of heart muscle cells increases the force of their contractions, strengthening heartbeat.
VIRUSES & RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS


CH. 3
Sme viruses are able to use r-m endocytosis to enter & infect body cells. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which causes AIDS, can attach to a receptor called CD4. After biding to CD4, HIV enters the helped T cell via r-m endocytosis.
TAY-SACHS DISEASE



CH. 3
Most often affects children of Ashkenazi (eastern European Jewish) descent. An inherited condition characterized by the absence of a single lysosomal enzymen called Hex A. Patients experience seizures & muscle rigidity, gradually becoming blind, demented, uncoordinated and usually die before age of 5.
PROTEASOMES & DISEASE



CH. 3
Proteasomes continuously destruct unneeeded, damaged or faulty proteins, also cut proteins into small peptides. People with cystic fibrosis produce misshapen membrane transporter protein, resulting in imbalance in transport of fluid & ions across plasma membrane that causes buildup of thick mucus. Causes breathing & pancreatic digestive problems. Clumps of misfolded proteins accumulate in brains cells of Parkinson & Alzheimer patients.
GENOMICS



CH. 3
Genome is the total genetic information carried in a cell or organism. Study of relationships between genome & biological functions of an organism, aimed to detect & treat genetic diseases at an early stage, like HPB, obesity, diabets, cancer.
ANTISENSE THERAPY



CH. 3
drugs to block the action of mRNA. Used to treat cytomegalovirus retinitis virus and certain cancers.
RECOMBINANT DNA



CH. 3
When recombinant DNA functions properly, the host will synthesize the protein specified by the new gene it has acquired. Examples are hGH (human growth hormone), insulin, interferon, and erythropoietin (hormone that simulates rbc production).
TUMOR -SUPPRESSOR GENES



CH. 3
These genes produce proteins that normally inhibit cell division. Loss or alteration of gene called p53 on chromosome 17 leads to breast & colon cancers. Normal p53 prevents cell division & repairs damaged DNA. p53 named "the guardian angel of the genome".
PROGERIA



CH. 3
PROGERIA is a noninherited disease characterized by normal development in 1st yr of life followed by rapid aging. Death usually occurs around age 13.
WERNER SYNDROME



CH. 3
WERNER SYNDROME is rare, inherited disease causing rapid acceleration of aging, usually while person is in 20's. Skin wrinkles, gray hair & baldness, cataracts, muscular atrophy, cancer, diabetes mellitus, CVD.
BIOPSY



CH. 4
bio = life; opsy = to view.
Removal of a sample of living tissue fo microscopic examination. Used to diagnose many disorders, especially cancers, to discover cause of unexplained infections & inflammations.