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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are four main DNA viruses seen in clinical practice?
HBV
HSV
VZV
CMV
What antivirals are used against...
a) Influenza
b) CMV
c) HSV / VZV
d) Hep B
e) Hep C
f) HIV
a) Amantidine / Oseltamivir
b) Ganciclovir
c) Acyclovir, Famciclovir
d) Interferon, Lamivudine
e) Interferon, Ribavirin
f) ARVs
Classify the following bacteria...

Staph Aureus
GP cocci aerobe
Classify the following bacteria...

strep pneumo
GP diplococci aerobe
Classify the following bacteria...
strep pyogenes
GP cocci aerobe
Classify the following bacteria...
enterococcus fecalis
GP cocci aerobe
Classify the following bacteria...
lactobacillus
GP bacilli aerobe
Classify the following bacteria...
listeria
GP bacilli aerobe
Name a GN anaerobic bacilli?
Bacteroides fragillis
Classify the following bacteria...
clostridium
GP bacilli anaerobe
Name two GN aerobic cocci
Neisseria meningitis and gonorrheae
Classify the following bacteria...
E. coli
GN aerobic bacilli
Classify the following bacteria...
pseudomonas
GN aerobic bacilli
Classify the following bacteria...
Klebsiella
GN aerobic bacilli
Classify the following bacteria...
H. influenzae
GN aerobic bacilli
Name two challenging bugs which are GP
staph aureus
enterococcus fecalis
Name two challenging bugs which are GN bacilli
Pseudomonas
H flu
Name a challenging bug which is anaerobic
bacteroides fragilis
Name three classes/ drugs which are cell wall toxic
penicillins, cephalosporins, vancomycins
Name two drugs/ classes which inhibit bacterial protein synthesis
aminoglycosides, macrolides
Name three drug classes which alter nucleic acid synthesis
INH, Metronidazole, sulfas
Give an example of a DNA gyrase inhibitor
fluorquinolones
Penicillins: Toxicities
Allergy
Seizures at high dose
Hypokalemia (lose K+ with anionic drug)
Penicillin G (IV, IM)
Penicillin V (p.o.)
Action?
GP: streptococci / (enterococci)
GN: N. meningitidis
Anaerobes: b. fragilis
Aminopenicillins-- extended spectrum (ampicillin)
Coverage?
Same as penicillin but ADD
- enterococcus
- H. flu
- Some E. coli
What is the advantage of amoxicillin?
- Only t.i.d.
- less stomach upset
What is Clavulin and what advantage does it have over Amoxicillin?
Includes clavulinic acid
Broader spectrum:
Most Staph Aureus, many GN aerobes.
What is Piperacillin?
An antipseudomonal ampicillin with action against pseudomonas
What is Tazobactam?
Piperacillin-tazobactam:
BROAD spectrum
Most GP, GN, and anaerobes
What is Cloxacillin?
An antistaph penicillin
-- Good for S. aureus (but not MRSA)
-- Methicillin = no longer used
What are Carbapenems?
Extremely broad spectrum B-lactam
- GP, GN, Anaerobe
What category of drug are cephalosporins?
B-lactam
Do Cephalosporins cover aerobes or anaerobes?
Aerobes
What is the coverage of a 1st Generation Cephalosporin?
GP (gn)
2nd Generation?
~GP / ~GN
3rd Generation?
gn / GP
Fourth Generation?
BOTH !!!!! (but $$$$)
IV only
What are the 1st Gens?
cephalexin / cefazolin
2nd Gens?
cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotetan
3rd gens?
Cefixime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime
Fourth gens?
cefepime, cefpirome
What are some special aspects of...
a) Cefoxitin and Cefotetan
b) Ceftazidime
a) 2nd Gen, cover anaerobes
b) 3rd gen, covers pseudomonas
What is the suffix of macrolides?
-mycin
What does Erythromycin cover?
GP aerobes (not enterococcus)
some GP anaerobes
Some GN aerobes (h flu, B. pertussis, campylobacter, legionella)
Mycoplasma, Chlamydia
What do Clarithromycin and Azithromycin cover better than Erythromycin?
H influenzae
Tetracycline / Doxycycline
- Who should not take them?
- What is their spectrum
- Kids (stains teeth)
- GP except SA or enterococcus
- Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Rickettsia, Syphillis
Vancomycin
IV only
ALL GP aerobes
C diff
Why can you give vancomycin po for C diff but not for other infections?
Is not absorbed in gut, but can act IN gut against C diff
What is linezolid?
Drug for resistant GP infections
What is clindamycin's spectrum?
What is a complication of giving clindamycin?
GP aerobes including SA
GN anaerobes, including B. fragillis
C diff Diarrhea!
Metronidazole Spectrum
Anaerobes (including B. fragilis)
C diff
Trichomonas
Entameba
Metronidazole side fx
antabus reaction to EtOH
Aminoglycosides
- route
- spectrum
- side fx
- IV or IM
- GN bacilli
- Nephro and Ototoxicity
TMP - Sulfa (Bactrim) Spectrum
GN aerobes
Pneumocystic
UTIs!
Fluoroquinolones
- suffix
- use
- spectrum
- oxacin
- pneumonia (levofloxacin)
- GN aerobes, including pseudomonas
- GP aerobes but not Strep
What are the Respiratory Fluoroquinolones and what do they cover?
Levo and Moxifloxacin
H flu, pneumococcus, mycoplasma, chlamydia pneumoniae, legionella
What does Nitrofurantoin cover? what is it used for?
GN bacillis in UTI
staph saprophyticus (UTI)
Enterococcus (UTI)
Do REVIEW
Do REVIEW!!!