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35 Cards in this Set

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Piaget's cognitive development stage theory (name the 4 theories)
(assimilation and accomodation)
-Sensorimotor
-Pre-operational
-Concrete
-Formal operations
Sensorimotor Stage
0-2 yrs; here and now, object permanence
Pre-operational Stage
2-7 yrs; egocentric, intuitive rather than logical reasoning, reason dominated by perception, no conservation
Concrete Stage
7-11 yrs; understand conservation, inferential thinking, quantitative reasoning, reversibility of thought
Formal Operations Stage
12 yrs - adult; hypothetical situations, generalize learning, adult-like in reasoning
Kohlberg's stages of moral development (name the 3 stages)
-Preconventional
-Conventional
-Postconventional
Preconventional stage
behavior motivated by avoidance of punishment
Conventional stage
conformity of social norms
Postconventional stage
high ethics and moral principles of conscience
Social Learning Theory (Bandura)
bobo doll; learning not only through negative and positive reinforcement, but also through observation; kids can act aggressively simply by watching the aggressive behavior of others
Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
positive and negative reinforcement (both increase behavior); positive and negative punishment (both decrease behavior); extinction (lack of reinforcement, decreased behavior); learned helplessness
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
manipulated stimuli occurring before presentation of food to dogs; started as investigation of gastric function of dogs and chemistry of saliva
Seligman's approach
work with dogs, learned helplessness
Erickson's developmental stages (name the 5 stages)
-trust vs mistrust
-autonomy vs shame/doubt
-initiative vs guilt
-industry vs inferiority
-identity vs role confusion
Trust vs Mistrust
0-18 mos; attachment to caregiver
Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt
18 mos-3 yrs; begin to understand they control their behavior, develop confidence
Initiative vs Guilt
3-5 yrs; taking initiative in play and other tasks, imaginary play and choosing activities
Industry vs Inferiority
6-12 yrs; success or failure in school has lasting effect on self-efficacy and sense of adequacy; learn sense of industry if recognized
Identity vs Role Confusion
13-18 yrs; sense of identity, sense of self and strong ego; peers, role models, social pressure important
Describe Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Maslow postulated that needs are arranged in a hierarchy in terms of their potency. Although all needs are instinctive, some are more powerful than others. The lower the need is in the pyramid, the more powerful it is. The higher the need is in the pyramid, the weaker and more distinctly human it is. The lower, or basic, needs on the pyramid are similar to those possessed by non-human animals, but only humans possess the higher needs
Name the 5 levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs
-physiological needs
-safety and security needs
-love and belonging needs
-esteem needs
-self-actualization
(o The first four layers of the pyramid are what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs:" the individual does not feel anything if they are met, but feels anxious if they are not met. Needs beyond the D-needs are "growth needs," "being values," or "B-needs." When fulfilled, they do not go away; rather, they motivate further)
Physiological needs
the first level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs; including the biological requirements for food, water, air, and sleep
Safety and Security needs
the second level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs; includes needs for structure, order, security, and predictability
Love and Belonging needs
the third level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs; includes needs for friends and companions, a supportive family, identification with a group, and an intimate relationship
Esteem needs
the fourth leel of Maslow's hierarchy of needs; This group of needs requires both recognition from other people that results in feelings of prestige, acceptance, and status, and self-esteem that results in feelings of adequacy, competence, and confidence. Lack of satisfaction of the esteem needs results in discouragement and feelings of inferiority.
Self-actualization
apex of the original pyramid – morality, creativity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts
Premack principle
highly desirable event can be used as motivation for non-desirable event
Psychodynamic theory
behavior strongly influenced by forces within one's personality; usually unconscious; people are controlled by impulses, desires, conflicts that need to be resolved; early experiences are vital to development; Freud
Humanistic theory
behavior influenced by one's self-concept and subjective perceptions; need for personal growth; Maslow and Rogers
Behavioristic theory
behavior shaped by consequences from environment; people learn by associating events and outcomes; strong emphasis on data collection of observable behavior; basis for FBA; Skinner and Pavlov
Cognitive theory
behavior shaped by how one processes information and value/beliefs stemming from thinking; concerned with perception and people's thinking about events; people learn by observing others; schema and cognitive maps; Bandura
Neuro/Biopsychological theory
behavior heavily influenced by physiological, chemical and biological processes; behavior can sometimes be reduced to cellular or neuronal level; Goleman and LeDoux
Theory of Mind
understanding that others have thoughts, feelings, perspectives; often associated with ASD
Social Comparison theory
people use peer groups to evaluate own opinions, feelings, actions and abilities
Attribution Theory
people interpret and attribte their emotions to events, which in turn shape behavior and thinking; based on cognitive theory