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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Echolalia
Disorganized thinking
Repetition of another's words that is parrot-like and inappropriate
Circumstantiality
Disorganized thinking
Extremely detailed and lengthy discourse about a topic
Loose associations
Disorganized thinking
Absence of the normal connectedness of thoughts, ideas, and topics; Sudden shifts withough apparent relationship to preceding topic
Tangentiality
Disorganized thinking
The topic of conversation is changed to an entirely different topic that is a logical progression but causes a permanent detour from the original focus
Flight of ideas
Disorganized thinking
The topic of conversation changes repeatedly and rapidly, generally after just one sentence or phrase
Word salad
Disorganized thinking
String of words that are not connected in any way
Neologisms
Disorganized thinking
Words that are made up that have no common meaning and are not recognized
Paranoia
Disorganized thinking
Suspiciousness and guardedness that are unrealistic and ofter accompanied by grandiosity
Referential thinking
Disorganized thinking
Belief that neutral stimuli have special meaning to the individual
e.g.: The belief that the tv commentator is talking directly to the individual
Autistic thinking
Disorganized thinking
Restricts thinking to the literal and immediate so that the individual have private rules of logic and reasoning that make no sense to anyone else
Concrete thinking
Disorganized thinking
Lack of abstration in thinking; Inability to understand punch lines, metaphors, and analogies
Verbigeration
Disorganized thinking
Purposless repitition of words or phrases
Metonymic speech
Disorganized thinking
Use of words interchangeably with similar meanings
Clang association
Disorganized thinking
Repitition of words of phrases that are similar in sound but in no other way
e.g.:Right, sight, light, might
Stilted language
Disorganized thinking
Overly and inapprpriate artificial formal language
Pressured speech
Disorganized thinking
Speaking as if the words are being forced out
Neurocognitive impairment
Independent of positive and negative symptoms
Affects memory (short- and long-term), vigilance, verbal fluency, and executive functioning (volition, planning, purposive action, and self-monitoring behavior)
Disorganized symptoms
Those things that make it difficult for the schizophrenic to understand and respond to the ordinary sights and sounds of daily living
These include confused speech and thinking and disorganized behaviors
Aggression
Disorganized behavior
Behaviors or attitudes that reflect rage, hostility, and the potential for physical or verbal destructiveness
Usually comes about if the person believes someone is going to do him or her harm
Agitation
Disorganized behavior
Inability to sit still or attend to others
Accompanied by heightened emotions and tension
Catatonic excitement
Disorganized behavior
A hyperactivity characterized by purposeless activity and abnormal movements such as grimacing and posturing
Echopraxia
Disorganized behavior
Involuntary imitation of another person's movements and gestures
Regressed behavior
Disorganized behavior
Behaving in a manner of a less mature lige stage
Childlike and immature
Stereotypy
Disorganized behavior
Repetative, purposeless movements that are idiosyncratic to the individual and to some degree outside of the individual's control
Hypervigilance
Disorganized behavior
Systained attendtion to external stimuli as if expecting something important or frightening to happen
Waxy flexibility
Disorganized behavior
Posture held in odd or unusual fixed position for extended periods of time
Illusions
Misperception or exaggeration of stimuli that actually exist in the external environment
e.g.: Wrinkles in the bed sheets talking to the individual
Hallucinations
Perceptual experiences that occur without actual external sensory stimuli
Can involve any of the 5 senses
Auditory and visual are typical, with auditory being the most common
Delusions
Erroneous fixed, false beliefs that cannot be changed by reasonable argument
e.g.: Grandoise, nihilistic, persecutory, somatic
Grandiose delusions
Belief that one has exceptional powers, wealth, skill, influence, or destiny
Nihilistic delusions
Belief that one is dead or a calamity is impending
Persecutory delusions
Belief that one is being watched, ridiculed, harmed, or plotted against
Somatic delusions
Beliefs about abnormalities in bodily functions or structures
Positive symptoms of Schizophrenia
Delusions
Hallucinations
Negative symptoms of Schizophrenia
Difficult expressing emotion
Laugh, cry, and get angry less than often
Flat affect
Ambivalence
Inability to complete simple activities of daily living (dressing, combing hair)
Anhedonia
Cause individuals to withdraw and suffer feelings of severe isolation
Extrapyramidal side effects
Movement disorders caused by some antipsychotics
Related to the blockade of dopamine
Include dystonia, pseudoparkinsonism, and akathisia
Managed by restoring balance between acetylcholine and dopamine (use or anticholinergic drug or reducing dosage of antipsychotic)
Dystonia
or
Dystonic reactions
EPS
Develops rapidly and dramatically
More common in yound men
Characterized by tense muscles and body contortions
Patients first report thick tongue, tight jaw, or stiff neck
Oculogyric crisis, Torticollis, Retrocollis, Oropharyngeal-pharyngeal hypertonus
Oculogyric crisis
Dystonia
Muscles that control eye movements tense and pull the eyeball so that the patient is looking toward the ceiling
Eyes appear "rolled back" into the head
Torticollis
Dystonia
Neck muscles tense and pull head to one side while turning chin to the opposite side
Retrocollis
Dystonia
Neck muscles tense and pull head back
Oropharyngeal-pharyngeal hypertonus
Dystonia
Muscles of swallowing tense making it hard to swallow
Akathisia
EPS
Patients are restlessness, report feeling the need to keep moving, feel very uncomfortable
Pseudoparkinsonism
EPS
Looks just like Parkisnson's disease
Rigidity, akinesia (slowed movement), and tremor are the classic triad
Tardive dyskinesia
A chronic EPS
Characterized by irregular, repetative involuntary movements of the mouth, face, and tongue including chewing, tongue protrusion, lip smacking, puckering of the lips, and rapid eye blinking
Abnormal fnger movements may also occur
Onset after no less than 6 months of treatment
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)
Life-threatening medical emergency
Characterized by hyperthermia and severe muscle rigidity along with mental status changes, hyper/hypotension, tachypnea/hypoxia, diaphoresis, tremor, or incontinence