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15 Cards in this Set

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define psychosis
a symptom that renders the pt unable to differentiate between fantasy and reality. many things can cause psychosis
differentiate between schizophrenia, delusional disorder, and brief psychotic disorder?
schizo has many symptoms and must last longer than six months, delusional has delusions only and is chronic like schizo. brief is sudden and usually short but is a prelude to schizo or bipolar disorder
list all the disorders or injuries that may include psychosis as a symptom.
schizophrenia, delusional do, brief psychotic do, bipolar do, schizoaffective do, psychotic depression, drugs, dementia, delirum, brain injury
what are the differential dx categories for schizo?
medical/surgical/substance induced, mood do's, personality do's, and miscellaneous like PTSD
what is one very important test in the work up of a new onset psychosis?
urine drug screen
what illness classifications due schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses fall under?
syndromes
what are the diagnostic criterion for schizo?
2 or psychotic symptoms for 1 mo. duration of illness for 6 mo. symptoms not due to mood do, medical, neurological, or substance induced do
what are the 5 formal thought disorders seen in schizo's?
circumstantiality, tangentiality, derailment, loosening of associations, word salad.
the most common hallucinations in psychosis are?
auditory and visual
describe the mood and affect of schizo pt's?
the affect is usually not normal while their mood is usually fine
what are the common positive symptoms? negative?
delusions, hallucinations, behavioral dyscontrol, affective instability. affective flattening, alogia, avoilition, anhedonia, attentional impairment
what are the anatomical abnormalities of schizo's?
enlargement of lateral ventricles, widening of third ventricle, smaller than normal total brain vol, cortical atrophy, brain volume loss starts early on
what area of the brain fails to work properly in schizo's resulting in failure of problem solving, adaptation, and coping with changes?
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. "hypofrontality"
what are three examples of DA agonists that can precipitate a psychosis?
amphetamines, cocaine, L-dopa
what two DA systems are off balanced in schizo and what do they each cause?
increase mesolimbic resulting in positive symptoms, decreased mesocortical resulting in worsening of negative symptoms