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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A serious mental disorder characterized by disordered thought, delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behaviors.
Positive Symptoms
A symptoms that is evident by its presence: delusions, hallucinations, or thought disorders. Adding something to their personality.
Thought Disorder
Disorganized, irrational thinking. Probably the most important symptom.
A belief that is clearly in contradiction to reality.
Perception of a nonexistent object or event. Most common are auditory.
Negative Symptom
A symptom characterized by the absence of behaviors that are normally present: social withdrawal, lack of affect, and reduced motivation. Also, flattened emotional response, and povertry of speech.
A dopamine receptor blocker; a commonly prescribed antischizophrenic drug.
An atypical antipsychotic drug; block D4 receptors in the nucleus accumbens.
The study of the distribution and causes of diseases in populations.
Seasonality effect
The increased incidence of schizophrenia in people born during late winter and early spring.
Decreased activity of the prefrontal cortex; believed to be responsible for the negative symptoms.
Major affective disorder
A serious mood disorder; includes unipolar depression and bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder
A serious mood disorder characterized by cyclical periods of mania and depression.
Unipolar depression
A serious mood diosrder that consists of unremitting depression or periods of depression that do not alternate with periods of mania.
How common is schizophrenia?
1 percent of the world's population
Positive symptoms are caused by?
Caused by a biochemical disorder. Involve excessive activity in some neural circuits that include dopamine as a neurotransmitter.
Negative symptoms are caused by?
Developmental or degenerative processes that impair the normal functions of some regions of the brain.
What are some environmental factor related to schizophrenia?
season of birth, viral epidemics, population density, Rh incompatibility, maternal stress, prenatal malnutrition, and latitude.
What factors might be responsible for the seasonality effect?
Pregnant women may be more likley to contract a viral illness during a critical phase of their infants' development. For example, if winter flu season coincide with the second trimester of pregnancy of babies born in late winter and early spring.
What is the latitude effect?
Increase incidence of schizophrenia they farther away one is born from the equator.
How is population density related to schizophrenia?
People who live in bigger cities are more likely to spread viruses more because of the higher densities.
How long do episodes of mania and depression last?
Mania can last a few days or several months, episodes of depression last three times as long as the mania.
What is the dopamine hypothesis?
Suggests that schizophrenia is caused by overactivity of dopaminergic synapses.
Tricyclic antidepressant
A class of drugs used to treat depression; inhibits the reuptak of norepinephrine and serotonin; named for the molecular structure.
Specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor
A drug that inhibits the reuptake of serotonin without affecting the reuptake of other neurotransmitters.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
A brief electrical shock, applied to the head, that results in an electrical seizure; used therapeutically to alleviate severe depression.
A chemical element; lithium carbonate is used to treat bipolar disorder.
A drug (trade name: Tegretol) that is used to treat seizure originating from a focus, generally in the medical temporal lobe. Although carbamazepine is effective in treating the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, its effects on mania are more impressive.
Monoamine hypothesis
A hypothesis that depression is caused by a low level of activity of one or more monoaminergic synapse.
Tryptophan depletion procedure
A procedure involving a low-tryptophan diet and a tryptophan-free amino acid cocktail that lowers brain tryptophan and consequently decreases the synthesis of 5-HT.
The sleep of people with depression
Tends to be shallow; slow-wave delta sleep (stage 3 and 4) is reduced, and stage 1 is increased. REM sleep occurs earlier and REM sleep contains an increased number of rapid eye movements.
What is one of the most effective antidepressant treatments?
Sleep deprivation, either total or selective
How is selective deprivation of REM sleep accomplished?
By monitoring people's EEG and awakening them whenever they show signs of REM sleep, alleviating depression. Like that of antidepressant medications, occurs slowly, over the course of several weeks. Is practical
What is total sleep deprivation?
Also has an antidepressant effect. Unlike specific deprivation of REM sleep, which takes several weeks to reduce depression, total sleep deprivation produces immediate effects. Not a very practical method
Seasonal affective disorder
A mood disorder characterized by depression, lethargy, sleep distrubances, and craving for carbohydrates during the winter season when days are short.
Summer depression
Sleep distrubance and loss of appetite
What is phototherapy?
Treatment of seasonal affective disorder by daily exposure to bright light.
Anxiety disorder
characterized by tension, overactivity of the autonomic nervous system, expectation of an impending disaster, and continuous vigilance for danger.
Panic disorder
A disorder characterized by episodic periods of symptoms such as shortness of breath, irregularities in heartbeat, and other autonomic symptoms, accompanied by intense fear.
Anticipatory anxiety
A fear of haivng a panic attack, may lead to the development of agoraphobia.
A fear of being away from home or other protected places.
Obessive-complusive disorder
A mental disorder characterized by obsessions and compulsions.
An unwanted thought or idea with which a person is preoccupied.
The feeling that one is obilged to perform a behavior, even if one prefers not to do so. Includes counting, checking, cleaning, and avoidance.
Tourette's syndrome
A neurological disorder characterized by tics and involuntary vocalizations and sometimes by compulsive uttering of obscentities and repetition of the utterances of others.
What is the dopamine hypothesis?
schizophrenia is caused by overactivity of dopaminergic synapses.