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32 Cards in this Set

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What drugs are commonly used to assist patients in ALCOHOL withrawal?
Benzodiazepines

Clonidine (Catapres)

Carbamezapine

Beta blockers
What class of drugs is most preferred to use in alcohol withdrawal
Beznodiazepines
Name some benzadiazepines
chlorodiazepoxide (Librium)

diazepam (Valium)

Tranzene

ozazepam (Serax)

lorazepam (Ativan)
What generic benzodiazepine is most commonly chosen to assist in alcohol withdrawal?
chlorodiazepoxide
What are some drugs used in addition to benzodiazepine to help assist alcohol withdrawal?
carbamazepine (Tegretol)
-reduces risk of seizures

clonidine
-reduces autonomic nervous system responses to withdrawal

Beta blockers
-reduce autonomic nervous system responses and may reduce cravings
What drugs would a nurse see on a patient's MAR to maintain alcohol abstinence
disulfuram (Antabuse)

naltrexone (ReVia)

acamprosate (Campral)
What side effects occur when a patient is on Antabuse and recently ingests alcohol
Nausea

Copious vomiting

Flushing

Palpitations

Headache

Sweating

Thirst

Chest pain
What LIFE THREATENING side effects does Antabuse cause when alcohol is ingested?
Marked respiratory depression

Cardiovascular collapse

Dysrhythmias

MI

CHF

Convulsions

Death
How long must a patient wait in order to drink alcohol without any side effects once they stop taking Antabuse
2 weeks
What does naltrexone (ReVia) decrease in a patient underoing alcohol withdrawal?
Decreases craving for alcohol and the pleasurable effects alcohol has.
What would happen to a patient who is dependent on opioids is given naltrexone?
It will cause withdrawal effects
A patient using naltrexone is in severe pain and the doctor prescribes morphine. What would the morphine dosage look like on the patient's MAR?
High doses because naltrexone typically binds to opiod receptors in the body, thus higher morphine dosages is required to have its analgesic effect.
What function does Acamprosate (Campral) have on withdrawal patients?
Reduces unpleasant feelings brought on by abstinence
What other treatment should be given with Acamprosate?
Psychosocial treatment
How does Onadestron (Zofran) work on the brain to help withdrawal patients?
Zofran may block the brain's reward system, thereby reducing motivation to drink
What similarities does Topiramate have with Naltrexone?
Both reduce alcohol cravings
What infection is common amongst alcoholics who have B and thiamine deficiencies? If the patient does have an infection, what is usually prescribed to fight it off?
Pneumonitis

Antibiotics
What kind of diet would a typical alcoholic patient have? Why?
High carbohydrate diet to replace alcohol which is also high in carbohydrates.
What drug is commonly used to treat opioid overdose?
Naloxone (Narcan)
What happens if too much naloxone is given?
Patient can go into withdrawal
What three drugs are used in assisting opioid withdrawal patients
Methadone

Buprenorphine

Clonidine
Which opioid assistive drug counteract some of the autonomic effects of withdrawal such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and elevated BP and P?
Clonidine
Why is methadone an excellent opioid assistive drug?
Patient experiences little ot no withdrawal effects under treatment.
What is the social problem with methadone?
Methadone is only prescribed a little at a time and can only be given during visitations. Patients would have to visit the clinic everday to ensure they get their opioid treatment, which makes their social life very difficult.
What are some common names of buprenorphine?
Subutex

Suboxone
What advantage does buprenorphine have over methadone?
Less addictive

Safer
What is the main social disadvantage patients have with buprenorphine.
Buprenorphine has to be monitored and adminstered by a physician, and, most of the time, patients on buprenorphine are drug addicts. Most physicians do not want to work with drug addicts, thus making it difficult to get treatment.
When is the best time to start buprenorphine treatment?
When a patient starts undergoing early withdrawal. If it occurs before then, patient can go into total withdrawal, thus making it more difficult for the patient.
TRUE OR FALSE: naltrexone is an opioid agonist.
FALSE: naltrexone is an opioid ANTAGONIST.
TRUE OR FALSE: Flumazinil (Romazicon) is a benzodiazepine antagonist.
TRUE
What is the main action of Flumazinil?
Reverses signs and symptoms of overdose.
How is Flumazinil typically administered?
IV