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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which coronary artery is so important that is given the name widowmaker if it happens to fail, and why
- Left Anterior Descending Artery
- It is named that because the LAD supplies blood to 2/3 of the septum and mostly to the left ventricle. Problems on the left ventricle can lead to ventricular fibrillation which is usually can lead to death
Function of Sinoatrial (SA) Node and its location
- Known as the pacemaker since it is used to initiate hear contraction and rhythm

- Located in the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava
Cardiac Output
Amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta every minute
Normal Cardiac Output
4-8 Liters/minute
Formulaic equation for Cardiac Output (CO)?
Cardiace Output (CO) = Heart Rate (HR) x Stroke Volume (SV)
Stroke Volume (SV)
How much volume each stroke ejects
Cardiac Index (CI)
Represents the Cardiac Output (CO) in terms of Liters(L)/minute squared (m^2) in regards to the subject's body surface
Ejection fraction
Amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with each beat compared to the amount of blood that remains in the left ventricle
Normal ejection fraction values
- Normal is at least 50%
- The lower the % the poorer the function of the left ventricle
– The length of ventricular fibers at the end of diastole (the amount of blood coming back into the right ventricle)

- At the end of diastole, the heart is resting

- The longer the fibers, the more volume there is

- The shorter, the less volume
What does increased preload indicate?
What does decreased preload indicate?
– The tension and stress that develops in the walls of the ventricle during systole (resistance that the ventricle must pump against)
– Affects the force of myocardial contractions
Positive inotropic effect
– Increases force of contraction
Preparation for Stres Test
- Get a good night’s sleep

- Avoid coffee, tea, alcohol the day of the test
- Can compromise the test’s accuracy

- Avoid smoking and taking any nitro 2 hours prior to the test

- Eat a light breakfast or lunch 2 hours prior to the test

- Wear comfortable clothes

- Wear good walking shoes

- Ask physician if meds should be taken prior to the test

- Tell the physician if you are having chest pain, dizziness, SOB during the test

- Rest after the test is completed
Pharmacologic Myocardial Stress
- Stress induced by using drugs

- Also known as Persantine (Dipyridamole) stress test
Antagonist for Persantine Stress Test
Thallium Scan
- Evaluates regional myocardial blood flow

- Diagnoses for "cold spots"

- May give false results
Name the two types of cardiac catheters
- Right Sided Heart Catheter

- Left Sided Heart Catheter