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16 Cards in this Set

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cognate proteins from oncogenes become hyperactive or overexpressed due to ___ or ___
viral infection or chemical-induced mutation
two main ways in which loss of control over cellular proliferation may arise
loss of tumor suppressor genes
gain of function of oncogenes
phase of the cell cycle that cancer cells never enter into
G° phase
___ results from regulation of the cell by viral genes, which bring about the properties typical for neoplasia
transformation
the first identified viral oncogene, isolated in 1970 from studies on a mutant form of Rous sarcoma virus

what promoter drives this and other retroviral oncogenes?
src

retroviral long terminal repeat (LTR)
two chronic retroviruses that are linked ot cancer in humans
HIV
HTLV-1 (adult T cell leukemia)
3 DNA viruses that are linked to cancer in humans
EBV (lymphomas)
HHV-8 (Kaposi's sarcoma)
HPV (anogenital carcinoma)
first virus implicated in human cancer

first discovered in a Burkitt lymphoma case in Africa

the most potent transforming agent known for human cells
Epstein-Barr virus
classical oncogene carried by EBV
latent membrane protein 1 gene (LMP1)
lymphoma associated w/ EBV

"starry sky" histological appearance
Burkitt lymphoma
family of signaling molecules that becomes hyperactive as a result of single base substitutions

activated gene is identified in many human tumors, including pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas
RAS family of signaling molecules
process leading to oncogene activation that is typical of solid tumors
activation by gene amplification
process leading to oncogene activation that is often associated w/ hematological malignancies
activation by chromosomal rearrangement
oncogene involved in HHV-8 that promotes cell cycling and proliferation
Cyclin D1
antiapoptotic molecule bound to the mitochondrial membrane that prevents activation of the caspase cascade

overexpressed in many lymphomas
Bcl2
defining characteristic of Burkitt's lymphoma
chromosomal translocation in the region of the c-myc oncogene (8q24)