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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the first E in "SCIENCE" start for?
Empty Organism
Why was a prominent psychologist accused of posing humans as an empty organism?
Because he/she required experimental evidence before accepting a principle related to humans.
What is an empty organism better than?
One filled with garbage
What does an empty organism approach suggest less of?
Conjecture, mentalism, etc
What is the empty organism to be "filled" with?
Data derived from controlled experimental inquiry
What does the N in "SCIENCE" stand for?
Nature is found by science
What is science defined as?
The study of what is
What are two other characteristics of science?
1) It is not free. It cannot interfere with the course of events.

2) It is a study of obedience, for the scientist must be capable of following what he/she discovers
What is a difficult to see a scientific principle defined as?
Ethically or morally bad
What are some illustrations of conflicts in the history of science in which attempts were made to restrict findings?
-Darwin's theory of evolution
-Copernicus's notion on the center of the universe
-Exploration in the Columbus era
-Galileo's notion of the universe
Why were these positions restricted?
Because they appeared to take away from the dignity of humans
What primarily restricts the scientist's attempt to seek knowledge?
The changes that take place under observation
The determination of scientific law is possible only if nature is ...
Why do people account for behavior by putting the cause mysteriously in the organism?
Because of ignorance or failing to focus on relevant variables
Why is science perpetuated?
Because it completes a task
What does the second C in "SCIENCE" stand for?
Cumulative progress
What can new variables do?
Minimize the importance of a certain finding
What is meant by 'cumulative progress'?
Those who follow in science always start a little ahead of those who precede
Is this always true in other fields?
No; much of current day philosophy still has its basis in the writing of Aristotle and Plato
What survives, not people?
What is the characteristic of science called that states that when an individual engages in scientific investigation humans may benefit from the successes and failures of those who came before him/her?
Cumulative progress
What does the practice of making scientific knowledge explicit result in?
Cumulation of scientific knowledge
What is likely to be included in the attitude of a scientist about the nature of scientific knowledge?
That science progresses through replacement of old knowledge
What is the primary difference between the culture of human beings and animals?
Human cultures evolve and accumulate knowledge
What does the second E in "SCIENCE" stand for?
Explanation of common sense is not enough
What is a proverb?
a statement of long standing familiar truth;

a statement that has been considered common sense for a long time
What is an example of a proverb?
"Look before you leap"
What is a shortcoming of common sense?
Many things which we accept as common sense have a direct opposite which we also call common sense
What is an example of this?
"Never too old to learn"
"Can't teach an old dog new tricks"
"Clothes make the man/woman"
"You can't make a silk purse out of a sow's ear"
What does the "?" stand for?
How to decide before a science?: An answer
What has happened in the last 50 years?
More advancement than has been made in the previous 5,000 years
When has most of the increase in transportation speed been made?
In the last one percent of human history
How has the growth been in the last century?
What is another example of technogical progress based on scientific research?
Timing devices have improved in their efficiency
When does human progress advance at a more rapid rate?
When humans require a more rigorous form of observable evidence.
What is the one major drawback of pre-scientific modes of explanation (e.g. superstition, common sense, intuitive philosophy)?
They offer no way of resolving contradictory explanations