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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does the B in the SB acronym stand for?
Behavior, It's Subject Matter
Who is most commonly associated with the initiation of the importance of behavior as subject matter in psychology?
J.B. Watson, an American psychologist
What was J.B. Watson's first major article called?
"Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It"
What system of psychology did he found?
Behaviorism
What was the basic change suggested by J.B. Watson?
De-emphasize "mind" in psychology and substitute with observable responses.
What did he try to set psychology free from?
Philosophy
What did he define psychology as?
the division of natural science which takes behavior as its subject matter and is objective
What did J.B. Watson think of consciousness?
he though it was poor material out of which to construct a science
What did Watson revolt against?
internal, covert, cognitive processes
What are behaviorists interested in primarily?
overt measurable behavior
What did Behaviorism seek?
objectivity
What is the truism mentioned?
"The only things to study are those things one is able to study"
What was an example of a cause for behavior that is not testable?
Easter Bunny
What are Behaviorists criticized for?
some do not think they go far enough, but they do study those "far enough" areas
What did Watson mean when he said that "human psychology has failed to make good its claim as a natural science"?
The mistaken notion that its fields of facts are conscious phenomena and introspection is the only direct method of getting at these facts has made it impossible to use the experimental method
What position on the behavior of man and animals do behaviorists take?
That the behavior of man and the behavior of animals must be considered on the same plane: as being equally essential to a general understanding of behavior
What did Watson say was a problem for philosophy and not psychology?
Whether or not consciousness as a tool is properly used at present by scientists.
What did Watson say must happen if the phenomena of behavior are ever to be brought within scientific control?
Studies on amoebae and other organisms must be made in and for themselves, without reference to the behavior of man ... even though this could lead to overlapping. No assumptions.
What did Watson say the elimination of states of consciousness as proper objects of investigation from psychology would do?
Remove the barrier from psychology which exists between it and other sciences
What problems would behaviorism neglect?
Most of the problems that psychology as an introspective science concerns itself with, except for the few really essential ones
What does the E in "BEFORE" stand for?
Experimental Data are Different from Correlational Data (S-R and R-R)
A variation in the independent variable is the condition under which a variation in the [blank] variable will occur
dependent
What are dependent variables generally measures of?
Behavior/responses
What are IVs generally?
stimuli
What is the S-R Law?
A stimulus results in a response
S-R Laws state that Rs are:
dependent variables
A relationship between an antecedent and a response is called an S-[blank] law
S-R law
What was the example of an R-R relationship?
The years people feel on banana peels and broke their hips in India, the birth rate was high in London
What do R-R relationships show?
That two events are correlated (they just occur together)
What is the latin name for hasty generalization regarding the dependence of one variable on another?
post hoc ergo propter hoc

-fallaciously concludes that the latter of two events must have been caused by the earlier
When do we say that two events are correlated?
When the two events are related and one does not cause the other.
What does a correlation depict?
The degree of relationship between two variables
In which type of relationship (R-R or S-R) is a variable manipulated or changed?
S-R
What variables do antecedent conditions refer to?
independent variables
S-R laws state that [blank] are the dependent variables and [blank] are the independent variables.
Responses
Stimuli
What does the F in "BEFORE" stand for?
Functional Relations, an Objective of Science
What is the long-range goal of science?
Finding scientific laws
What other commonly stated goals can be accomplished after one can control an event?
One can also predict, describe, and explain an event
What is a general formula for decsribing a variable relationship in psychology?
B=F(x)

Behavior is a function of x
What are functional relationships?
Lawful relationships that establish cause-and-effect
In order to have a functional relationship, how many events are necessary?
2
If you can control the variables, what can you also control?
The outcome
Assume that a lawful relationship between event A and event B has been established. When you manipulate event A, you can [blank] and [blank] event B
control and predict
What is science?
an expressed set of behaviors searching for order in terms of functional relationships
A scientific understanding of behavior implies that ...
the events related to it are known
What does a scientific law not tell you?
Why an event happened
What does the O in "BEFORE" stand for?
Occam's razor or law of parsimony
What is the Law of Parsimony also known as?
Occam's razor
The principle of Economy
Why is it called Occam's razor?
After William of Occam;

it "shaves assumptions"
What does the Law of Parsimony state?
that when two or more different explanations exist, the explanation that should be preferred is the one which is simplest and requires the smallest number of unobservable explanatory concepts
What is the Law of Parsimony called in psychology?
Morgan's canon (after Lloyd C. Morgan)
Morgan's Canon
a behavioral act must not be attributed to the activity of a high psychic faculty, if it can be explained equally well as a result of the activity of a faculty lower on the psychological scale
The law of parsimony states that we prefer those explanations which are based on the [blank] explanatory concept
simplest
When one prefers to use a feedback principle rather than a construct or mental or psychic inferences, one is using:
parsimony
If an explanation covers a maximum of facts with a minimum of inferences, it is [blank]
parsimonious
What have instinct theories of human behavior been criticized for?
violating the laws of parsimony