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166 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
acute angle

an angle that has a measure greater than 0* and less than 90*


acute triangle

a triangle in which each of the three angles measures less than 90*


addend

a number that is added in an addition problem


addition sequence

an ordered list of numbers in which the same number is added to the previous term to get the following term


algebraic addition

the addition of the opposite of a number; used to replace subtraction


a.m.

before noon (ante meridiem)


angle

an opening between two intersecting lines, rays, or segments


Arabic numerals

the digits (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9) used in combination with place value to express numbers. For example, 475 is an Arabic numeral.


area

the number of square units of a given size that cover the surface of a figure


average

the amount found by dividing the sum of a set of numbers by the number of numbers in the set, also known as arithmetic average or mean


base

in a triangle or parallelogram, the side from which the height of the triangle or parallelogram is measured


Celsius scale

one of the scales used on a thermometer to measure temperature. on this scale, water boils at 100*C and freezes at 0*C. normal body temperature is 37*C


century

one hundred years


chance

the likelihood that something will happen, expressed as a percentage


circle

a round graph in which every point on the graph is the same distance from a center point


circumference

the distance around a circle, also known as the perimeter of a circle


common number

a number shared by two or more sets, as in common factor, common multiple and common denominator


compare

to determine whether one number or expression is greater than, less than, or equal to another number or expression


compass

a tool that aids in the drawing of circles, as well as in other geometric applications


composite

a number that has more than two factors


cone

a threedimensional solid with a circular base and a single vertex


congruent

a set of figures that have the same shape and size. also, angles or line segments that have the same measure


coordinate plane

a graph of two perpendicular number lines that have scale marks extended to form a grid on which to plot points


coordinates

a paired set of numbers like (3, 2) that indicates the location of a point on a coordinate plane. the first number shows the horizontal direction and distance from the origin (on the xaxis); the second number shows the vertical direction and distance from the origin (on the yaxis)


counting numbers

the numbers in this sequence: 1,2,3,4,5,....


cross products

the result of taking a pair of fractions and multiplying the numerator of the first fraction by the denominator of the second fraction and vice versa


cube

a threedimensional solid with six square faces. adjacent faces are perpendicular, and opposite faces are parallel


cylinder

a threedimensional solid with two circular bases, that are opposite and parallel to each other


decade

ten years


decimal places

all of the place values to the right of the decimal point


decimal point

a period used to separate the ones' place from the tenths' place


degree (*)

the unit used to measure angles. also, the symbol used to denote unit divisions on a temperature scale


denominator

the bottom number of a fraction, designating the number of equal parts in a whole number


diameter

the distance across a circle throught the center of the circle


difference

the result of subtraction


digit

any one of the following ten numerical symbols: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9


dividend

the number that is divided in a division problem


divisible

the ability to be divided without a remainer; for example 6 is divisible by 1,2,3, and 6


divisor

the number by which another number is divided


edge

a line at which two faces of a solid come together


endpoints

the points at which a line segment ends


equals sign (=)

a symbol that indicated that two numbers or expressions are equivalent


equilateral triangle

a triangle in which all three sides and all three angles are equal in measure


equivalent

expressions that have the same value; for example, 2/4 is equivalent to 1/2, or
2/4 = 1/2 

estimate

to roughly determine a size or value; to calculate approzimately using rounded numbers


even numbers

those numbers that can be divided by 2 without a remainer. the digit in the ones' place of an even number is 0,2,4,6, or 8


experimental probability

the probability of an event occurring as determined by data collection


exponent

a number that indicates repeated multiplication of the base. for example, in 5 to the 2nd, 2 is the exponent and 5 is the base, and this means 5 x 5, or 25


face

a flat surface of a solid


fact families

sets of three numbers which can be formed into two addition facts and two subtraction facts, or two muliplication facts and two division facts


factor

a number being multiplied. also, a whole number which divides another whole number without a remainer


Fahrenheit scale

one of the scales, used on a thermometer to measure temperature. on this scale, water boils at 212*F and freezes at 32*F. normal body temperature is 98.6*F


fraction

a common fraction is part of a whole, expressed as a numerator over a denominator


geometry

the study of shapes


graph

a diagram such as a bar graph, a circle graph (pie chart), or a line graph that displays quantitative information


greater than/less than sign (< >)

a symbol placed between two numbers or expressions to indicate which is greater or which is less


greatest common factor (GCF)

the largest whole number that is a factor of all members of a given set of whole numbers


height

in a triangle or parallelogram, the perpendicular distance from the base to the opposite vertex of a trianle or from the base to the parallel side of a parallelogram


hexagon

any sixsided polygon


histogram

a special type of bar graph that displays data in equivalent intervals with no space between the bars


horizontal

parallel with the horizon; perpendicular to vertical


hundredths' place

the place value two places to the right of the decimal point. each hundredth equals 1/100


improper fraction

a fraction in which the numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator; a fraction that is equal to or greater than one


integers

the set of numbers that includes all the counting numbers, their opposites, and zero


intersecting lines

lines that cross; lines which share a common point


irrational number

a number that cannot be expressed as a fraction. examples are ∏ and √2


isosceles triangle

a triangle in which at least two of the three sides and angles are equal in measure


length

a longer side of a rectangle


least common multiple (LCM)

the smallest number that is a multiple of a given set of whole numbers


line

a continuous string of points extending in two opposite directions without end


line of symmetry

a line that divides a figure into two mirror images


mass

the amount of matter in an object


mean

the average of a set of numbers


median

in a set of numbers arranged in order from least to greatest, the middle number, or the average of the two middle numbers


metric system

an international system of measure based on multiples of ten using units such as meters, liters, and grams


mixed numbers

an expression made up of a whole number and a fraction, such as 2 3/4


mode

the most frequently occurring number or numbers in a set of numbers


mulitple

a number found by multiplying a given number by a whole number greater than zero; for example, the multiples of 5 are 5,10,15,20,....


multiplication sequence

an ordered list of numbers in which the same number is multiplied by the previous term to get the following term


negative

a number less than zero; the opposite of positive


noon

midday; 12:00 p.m.


number line

a line with evenly spaced marks on which a number is associated with each mark


numeral

a written symbol for a number


numerator

the top number of a fraction, designating the number of parts being used


oblique

slanted, sloped, or inclined lines; neither horizontal nor vertical; neither parallel nor perpendicular


obtuse angle

an angle that has a measure greater than 90* but less than 180*


obtuse triangle

a triangle in which one angle measures greater than 90*


octagon

any eightsided polygon


odd numbers

those numbers that have a remainder of 1 when divided by 2. the digit in the ones' place of an odd number is 1,3,5,7, or 9


operation of arithmetic

mathematical processes performed according to specific rules. these processes are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division


opposites

those numbers that can be written with the same digits but with opposite signs. for example, the opposite of 5 is 5. the sum of a number and its opposite is zero


origin

the point (0,0) on a cordinate plane at which the xaxis and yaxis intersect


parallel

lines, rays, or segments that remain the same distance apart and do not intersect


parallelogram

a quadrilateral that has two pairs of parallel sides


pentagon

a fivesided polygon


percent

a fraction with the denominator 100 expressed with a percent sign, %. for example, 99% = 99/100


perfect square

a number that has as its square root a whole number. examples of perfect squares are 1, 4, and 9


perimeter

the distance around a shape


perpendicular

lines, rays, or segments that intersect to form right angles


pi (∏)

the Greek letter that stands for the number of diamteters in a circulference (approximately equal to 3.14)


place value

the value of a digit determined by its position within a numeral


p.m.

after noon (post meridiem)


polygon

any straightsided closed plane figure


polyhedron

a solid figure on which every face is a polygon


positive

a number grater than zero; the opposite of negative


prime

a counting number that has exactly two factors, the number 1 and itself


prime factorization

the breakdown of a counting number by writing it as a product of its prime factors


prism

a threedimensional solid that has two congruent, parallel polygons as its base


probability

the likelihood that something will happen expressed as a ratio


product

the result of multiplying


proper fraction

a fraction in which the numerator is less than the denominator


proportion

a true statement that dmonstrates two rations are equivalent


protractor

a tool that is used to measure and draw angles


pyramid

a threedimensional solid with a polygon as its base and triangular sides that meet at a vertex


quadrilateral

any foursided polygon


quotient

the result of division


radius

the distance from the center of a circle. the plural of radius is radii


range

the difference between the greatest and the least in a set of numbers


ratio

an expression of the relationship between two numbers using a colon, a fraction, or words, such as 3:2, 3/2, or 3 to 2


ray

the portion of a line that begins at one point and continues without end


reciprocal

the fraction resulting from inverting a given fraction (reversing the numerator and denominator). the product of a fraction and its reciprocal is one


rectangle

a foursided polygon that has four right angles


rectangular prism

a prism with rectangles as bases


rectangular solid

a threedimensional solid where all six faces are rectangles. opposite faces are parallel and adjacent faces are perpendicular


reduce

to divide a fraction by another fraction equal to 1 in order to form an equivalent fraction in which both the numerator and denominator have lesser values. for example, 2/4 reduces to 1/2


reflection

a transformation performed by reflecting a figure as in a mirror or flipping a figure over a certain line


regular polygon

a polygon in which all sides and angles are equal in measure


remainder

in subtraction, the difference; in division, any number that is left over after dividing integers


rhombus

a parallelogram that has sides of equal length


right angle

a square angle, often marked with a square, that has a measure of 90*


right triangle

a triangle in which one angle measures 90*


Roman numerals

an ancient form of numbering that does not use place value; for example II is a Roman numeral equivalent to the Arabic numeral 2


rotaion

a transformation performed by turning a figure about a certain point


rounding

finding another number that is near the number given; for example, 587 rounds to 600


sales tax

the tax charged on the sale of an item based upon the selling price


scale

a system of marks at regular intervals used for measurement. also, an instrument that displays such marks


scalene triangle

a triangle in which all three sides and all three angles are not equal in measure


segment

a part of a line that has two endpoints


sequence

an ordered list of numbers that follows a certain rule


side

a line segment of a polygon; the number of sides indicates the type of polygon


similar

a set of figures or angles that are the same shape but not necessarily the same size


solid

a geometric shape that occupies space


sphere

a smooth geometric solid that is shaped like a ball


square

a rectangle in which all sides are the same length


square root

a number that, when multiplied by itself, equals the given number. the square root of 49 is 7 because 7 ∙ 7 = 49. the principal of the positive square root of a number is indicated by this symbol, √


straight angle

an angle that forms a straight line and has a measure of 180*


sum

the result of addition


surface area

the total area of all of the surfaces of a geometric solid


survey

a method of collecting data about a particular population


tenths' place

the place value one place to the right of the decimal point. each tenth equals 1/10


theoretical probability

the probability of an event occurring as determined by analysis rather than by experimentation


thousandths' place

the place value three places to the right of the decimal point. each thousandth equals 1/1000


transformation

any of the three forms of movement (rotation, reflection, and translation) made to reposition a figure


translation

a transformation performed by sliding a figure in one direction without turning the figure


trapezium

a quadrilateral in which no sides are parallel


trapezoid

a quadrilateral in which one pair of sides are parallel


triangle

a polygon that has three sides and three angles, the sum of which measure 180*


unit multiplier

a fraction equal to one, written with two different but equivalent units of measure; for example, 1 ft/12 in is a unit multiplier


U.S.Customary System

a U.S. system of measure using units such as fee, gallons and pounds


vertex

the point at which two sides of a polygon or three or more edges of a polyhedron intersect. the plural of vertex is vertices. note that a cone also has a vertex. this vertex is not made from the intersection of edges, but rather the intersection of the lines that would make up the nonbase surface of the cone


vertical

upright; perpendicular to horizontal


volume

the amount of space a given shape occupies


whole numbers

all the counting numbers and zero, as in the sequence: 0,1,2,3,4,....


width

a shorter side of a rectangle


xaxis

the horizontal number line of the coordinate plane


yaxis

the vertical number line of the coordinate plane
