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166 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
acute angle
an angle that has a measure greater than 0* and less than 90*
acute triangle
a triangle in which each of the three angles measures less than 90*
addend
a number that is added in an addition problem
addition sequence
an ordered list of numbers in which the same number is added to the previous term to get the following term
algebraic addition
the addition of the opposite of a number; used to replace subtraction
a.m.
before noon (ante meridiem)
angle
an opening between two intersecting lines, rays, or segments
Arabic numerals
the digits (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9) used in combination with place value to express numbers. For example, 475 is an Arabic numeral.
area
the number of square units of a given size that cover the surface of a figure
average
the amount found by dividing the sum of a set of numbers by the number of numbers in the set, also known as arithmetic average or mean
base
in a triangle or parallelogram, the side from which the height of the triangle or parallelogram is measured
Celsius scale
one of the scales used on a thermometer to measure temperature. on this scale, water boils at 100*C and freezes at 0*C. normal body temperature is 37*C
century
one hundred years
chance
the likelihood that something will happen, expressed as a percentage
circle
a round graph in which every point on the graph is the same distance from a center point
circumference
the distance around a circle, also known as the perimeter of a circle
common number
a number shared by two or more sets, as in common factor, common multiple and common denominator
compare
to determine whether one number or expression is greater than, less than, or equal to another number or expression
compass
a tool that aids in the drawing of circles, as well as in other geometric applications
composite
a number that has more than two factors
cone
a three-dimensional solid with a circular base and a single vertex
congruent
a set of figures that have the same shape and size. also, angles or line segments that have the same measure
coordinate plane
a graph of two perpendicular number lines that have scale marks extended to form a grid on which to plot points
coordinates
a paired set of numbers like (3, -2) that indicates the location of a point on a coordinate plane. the first number shows the horizontal direction and distance from the origin (on the x-axis); the second number shows the vertical direction and distance from the origin (on the y-axis)
counting numbers
the numbers in this sequence: 1,2,3,4,5,....
cross products
the result of taking a pair of fractions and multiplying the numerator of the first fraction by the denominator of the second fraction and vice versa
cube
a three-dimensional solid with six square faces. adjacent faces are perpendicular, and opposite faces are parallel
cylinder
a three-dimensional solid with two circular bases, that are opposite and parallel to each other
decade
ten years
decimal places
all of the place values to the right of the decimal point
decimal point
a period used to separate the ones' place from the tenths' place
degree (*)
the unit used to measure angles. also, the symbol used to denote unit divisions on a temperature scale
denominator
the bottom number of a fraction, designating the number of equal parts in a whole number
diameter
the distance across a circle throught the center of the circle
difference
the result of subtraction
digit
any one of the following ten numerical symbols: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
dividend
the number that is divided in a division problem
divisible
the ability to be divided without a remainer; for example 6 is divisible by 1,2,3, and 6
divisor
the number by which another number is divided
edge
a line at which two faces of a solid come together
endpoints
the points at which a line segment ends
equals sign (=)
a symbol that indicated that two numbers or expressions are equivalent
equilateral triangle
a triangle in which all three sides and all three angles are equal in measure
equivalent
expressions that have the same value; for example, 2/4 is equivalent to 1/2, or
2/4 = 1/2
estimate
to roughly determine a size or value; to calculate approzimately using rounded numbers
even numbers
those numbers that can be divided by 2 without a remainer. the digit in the ones' place of an even number is 0,2,4,6, or 8
experimental probability
the probability of an event occurring as determined by data collection
exponent
a number that indicates repeated multiplication of the base. for example, in 5 to the 2nd, 2 is the exponent and 5 is the base, and this means 5 x 5, or 25
face
a flat surface of a solid
fact families
sets of three numbers which can be formed into two addition facts and two subtraction facts, or two muliplication facts and two division facts
factor
a number being multiplied. also, a whole number which divides another whole number without a remainer
Fahrenheit scale
one of the scales, used on a thermometer to measure temperature. on this scale, water boils at 212*F and freezes at 32*F. normal body temperature is 98.6*F
fraction
a common fraction is part of a whole, expressed as a numerator over a denominator
geometry
the study of shapes
graph
a diagram such as a bar graph, a circle graph (pie chart), or a line graph that displays quantitative information
greater than/less than sign (< >)
a symbol placed between two numbers or expressions to indicate which is greater or which is less
greatest common factor (GCF)
the largest whole number that is a factor of all members of a given set of whole numbers
height
in a triangle or parallelogram, the perpendicular distance from the base to the opposite vertex of a trianle or from the base to the parallel side of a parallelogram
hexagon
any six-sided polygon
histogram
a special type of bar graph that displays data in equivalent intervals with no space between the bars
horizontal
parallel with the horizon; perpendicular to vertical
hundredths' place
the place value two places to the right of the decimal point. each hundredth equals 1/100
improper fraction
a fraction in which the numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator; a fraction that is equal to or greater than one
integers
the set of numbers that includes all the counting numbers, their opposites, and zero
intersecting lines
lines that cross; lines which share a common point
irrational number
a number that cannot be expressed as a fraction. examples are ∏ and √2
isosceles triangle
a triangle in which at least two of the three sides and angles are equal in measure
length
a longer side of a rectangle
least common multiple (LCM)
the smallest number that is a multiple of a given set of whole numbers
line
a continuous string of points extending in two opposite directions without end
line of symmetry
a line that divides a figure into two mirror images
mass
the amount of matter in an object
mean
the average of a set of numbers
median
in a set of numbers arranged in order from least to greatest, the middle number, or the average of the two middle numbers
metric system
an international system of measure based on multiples of ten using units such as meters, liters, and grams
mixed numbers
an expression made up of a whole number and a fraction, such as 2 3/4
mode
the most frequently occurring number or numbers in a set of numbers
mulitple
a number found by multiplying a given number by a whole number greater than zero; for example, the multiples of 5 are 5,10,15,20,....
multiplication sequence
an ordered list of numbers in which the same number is multiplied by the previous term to get the following term
negative
a number less than zero; the opposite of positive
noon
midday; 12:00 p.m.
number line
a line with evenly spaced marks on which a number is associated with each mark
numeral
a written symbol for a number
numerator
the top number of a fraction, designating the number of parts being used
oblique
slanted, sloped, or inclined lines; neither horizontal nor vertical; neither parallel nor perpendicular
obtuse angle
an angle that has a measure greater than 90* but less than 180*
obtuse triangle
a triangle in which one angle measures greater than 90*
octagon
any eight-sided polygon
odd numbers
those numbers that have a remainder of 1 when divided by 2. the digit in the ones' place of an odd number is 1,3,5,7, or 9
operation of arithmetic
mathematical processes performed according to specific rules. these processes are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
opposites
those numbers that can be written with the same digits but with opposite signs. for example, the opposite of 5 is -5. the sum of a number and its opposite is zero
origin
the point (0,0) on a cordinate plane at which the x-axis and y-axis intersect
parallel
lines, rays, or segments that remain the same distance apart and do not intersect
parallelogram
a quadrilateral that has two pairs of parallel sides
pentagon
a five-sided polygon
percent
a fraction with the denominator 100 expressed with a percent sign, %. for example, 99% = 99/100
perfect square
a number that has as its square root a whole number. examples of perfect squares are 1, 4, and 9
perimeter
the distance around a shape
perpendicular
lines, rays, or segments that intersect to form right angles
pi (∏)
the Greek letter that stands for the number of diamteters in a circulference (approximately equal to 3.14)
place value
the value of a digit determined by its position within a numeral
p.m.
after noon (post meridiem)
polygon
any straight-sided closed plane figure
polyhedron
a solid figure on which every face is a polygon
positive
a number grater than zero; the opposite of negative
prime
a counting number that has exactly two factors, the number 1 and itself
prime factorization
the breakdown of a counting number by writing it as a product of its prime factors
prism
a three-dimensional solid that has two congruent, parallel polygons as its base
probability
the likelihood that something will happen expressed as a ratio
product
the result of multiplying
proper fraction
a fraction in which the numerator is less than the denominator
proportion
a true statement that dmonstrates two rations are equivalent
protractor
a tool that is used to measure and draw angles
pyramid
a three-dimensional solid with a polygon as its base and triangular sides that meet at a vertex
quadrilateral
any four-sided polygon
quotient
the result of division
radius
the distance from the center of a circle. the plural of radius is radii
range
the difference between the greatest and the least in a set of numbers
ratio
an expression of the relationship between two numbers using a colon, a fraction, or words, such as 3:2, 3/2, or 3 to 2
ray
the portion of a line that begins at one point and continues without end
reciprocal
the fraction resulting from inverting a given fraction (reversing the numerator and denominator). the product of a fraction and its reciprocal is one
rectangle
a four-sided polygon that has four right angles
rectangular prism
a prism with rectangles as bases
rectangular solid
a three-dimensional solid where all six faces are rectangles. opposite faces are parallel and adjacent faces are perpendicular
reduce
to divide a fraction by another fraction equal to 1 in order to form an equivalent fraction in which both the numerator and denominator have lesser values. for example, 2/4 reduces to 1/2
reflection
a transformation performed by reflecting a figure as in a mirror or flipping a figure over a certain line
regular polygon
a polygon in which all sides and angles are equal in measure
remainder
in subtraction, the difference; in division, any number that is left over after dividing integers
rhombus
a parallelogram that has sides of equal length
right angle
a square angle, often marked with a square, that has a measure of 90*
right triangle
a triangle in which one angle measures 90*
Roman numerals
an ancient form of numbering that does not use place value; for example II is a Roman numeral equivalent to the Arabic numeral 2
rotaion
a transformation performed by turning a figure about a certain point
rounding
finding another number that is near the number given; for example, 587 rounds to 600
sales tax
the tax charged on the sale of an item based upon the selling price
scale
a system of marks at regular intervals used for measurement. also, an instrument that displays such marks
scalene triangle
a triangle in which all three sides and all three angles are not equal in measure
segment
a part of a line that has two endpoints
sequence
an ordered list of numbers that follows a certain rule
side
a line segment of a polygon; the number of sides indicates the type of polygon
similar
a set of figures or angles that are the same shape but not necessarily the same size
solid
a geometric shape that occupies space
sphere
a smooth geometric solid that is shaped like a ball
square
a rectangle in which all sides are the same length
square root
a number that, when multiplied by itself, equals the given number. the square root of 49 is 7 because 7 ∙ 7 = 49. the principal of the positive square root of a number is indicated by this symbol, √
straight angle
an angle that forms a straight line and has a measure of 180*
sum
the result of addition
surface area
the total area of all of the surfaces of a geometric solid
survey
a method of collecting data about a particular population
tenths' place
the place value one place to the right of the decimal point. each tenth equals 1/10
theoretical probability
the probability of an event occurring as determined by analysis rather than by experimentation
thousandths' place
the place value three places to the right of the decimal point. each thousandth equals 1/1000
transformation
any of the three forms of movement (rotation, reflection, and translation) made to reposition a figure
translation
a transformation performed by sliding a figure in one direction without turning the figure
trapezium
a quadrilateral in which no sides are parallel
trapezoid
a quadrilateral in which one pair of sides are parallel
triangle
a polygon that has three sides and three angles, the sum of which measure 180*
unit multiplier
a fraction equal to one, written with two different but equivalent units of measure; for example, 1 ft/12 in is a unit multiplier
U.S.Customary System
a U.S. system of measure using units such as fee, gallons and pounds
vertex
the point at which two sides of a polygon or three or more edges of a polyhedron intersect. the plural of vertex is vertices. note that a cone also has a vertex. this vertex is not made from the intersection of edges, but rather the intersection of the lines that would make up the non-base surface of the cone
vertical
upright; perpendicular to horizontal
volume
the amount of space a given shape occupies
whole numbers
all the counting numbers and zero, as in the sequence: 0,1,2,3,4,....
width
a shorter side of a rectangle
x-axis
the horizontal number line of the coordinate plane
y-axis
the vertical number line of the coordinate plane